Soil fertility is the ability of soil to provide nutrients in sufficient quantities and balanced for growth and yield, soil fertility is one of the things that need to be noticed in an agricultural business. A healthy and fertile land will provide enough nutrients to crops planted on it. Soil fertility is very closely linked to the availability of nutrients are available and can be absorbed by plants. Basically have a lot of available nutrients in the soil. It's just that there are some problems associated with the absorption of nutrients and the nature of it. There are several nutrients that are very abundant in nature only plants can not utilize the nutrients directly. For example, the N element, the element is abundant availability in nature. Only plants can not directly memamanfaatkan nutrients (except legume crops). There are some soil organisms that help plants transform and remodel n elements in nature becomes NH4 + that can be absorbed by plants. In addition to N elements, there are also other elements that also require the bacteria to merombaknya into a form element that can be absorbed by plants.
Biochar is the solid material obtained from carbonization of biomass. Biochar constitute charcoal porous substance (porous), often called charcoal or agri-char. Because it comes from living creatures we call charcoal-bio. In the soil, biochar provide good habitat for soil microbes such as bacteria that help in a reshuffle of nutrients so that nutrients can be absorbed by tenaman, but not consumed like other organic materials. In the long term biochar does not disturb the balance of the carbon-nitrogen, not even able to hold and makes the water and nutrients more available to plants.
Biochar can be added to the ground with a view to improve the functioning of the soil and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise be naturally lower greenhouse gases. Biochar also has the considerable value of carbon sequestration. Biochar is the material desired land in many locations because of its ability to attract and retain water. This is possible because of the porous structure and high surface area. As a result, nutrients, phosphorus and agricultural chemicals maintained for the benefit of the plant. Biochardapat become an important tool for improving food security and diversity of agricultural land in areas with depleted soil, organic resources are scarce and inadequate water supply and chemical fertilizers. Biochar also improve the quality and quantity of water to increase the retention of soil nutrients and agricultural chemicals for plants and plant utilization. More nutrients stay in the soil instead of leaching into ground water and cause pollution.
Application of biochar into the soil is a new and unique approach to make a container (sink) for the long-term atmospheric CO2 in terrestrial ecosystems. In the manufacturing process, approximately 50% of the carbon contained in the basic materials will be contained in biochar, biological decomposition is usually less than 20% after 5-10 years, while the burning is only 3% of carbon is left. In addition to reducing emissions and increase the binding of greenhouse gases, soil fertility and crop production can also be improved. Two main things biochar potential for agriculture is a high affinity for nutrients and persistence. Biochar is more persistent in the soil, so that all the benefits associated with nutrient retention and soil fertility can run longer than other organic materials commonly given. Long persistence makes biochar main options for reducing the impact of climate change. Although it can be a source of alternative energy, the benefits of biochar is much greater if buried in the ground in achieving environmentally friendly agriculture.
You can also download videos on : how to make biochar (charcoal rice husk) so easily by utilizing waste materials.
The addition of biochar to the soil increase the availability of major cations and phosphorus, total N and soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) that ultimately improve results. The high nutrient availability for plants is the result of increased nutrients directly from biochar, increasing nutrient retention, and change the dynamics of soil microbes. Long-term advantages for the availability of nutrients associated with organic carbon stabilization of higher along with the release of nutrients more slowly than the organic material used. Role of biochar to increase crop productivity is affected by the amount added. Granting of 0.4 to 8 tc ha-1 has been reported to significantly increase the productivity of between 20-220%. Each year waste forestry, farming, agriculture and livestock containing hundreds of millions of tons of carbon and is often a problem in terms of disposal. This type of waste is a potentially material is converted into biochar in various stages of production technology. As a simple illustration, from 50 million tons of grain production every year participate generated about 60 million tons a "iimbah" (straw and rice husks) that can be processed into biochar.
The addition of biochar into the soil at several studies show a variety of benefits in terms of soil quality Touch ups, such as
• Increases cation exchange capacity (CEC)
• Reduce soil acidity
• Improving soil structure
• Increase water holding capacity (water holding capacity)
• Improving the efficiency of fertilization
• Reduce CH4 and N2O are released into the air
• Reduces aluminum toxicity
• Improving microbial soil respiration
• Improve the soil microbial biomass
• Stimulates symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes
• Increase the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
The advantages of using biochar is certainly not universal, the results vary based on the type of soil.
Biochar found in soil worldwide as a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices. Intensive study of biochar-rich dark earth in the Amazon (terra preta / ground charcoal), has led to a wider appreciation of the unique properties of biochar as a soil enhancer. In Indonesia, especially in the rural areas of Kalimantan was also found that the soil has a characteristic yng equal to those in the Amazon region. This land is derived from sitsem slash fuel that had been applied since ancient times. Shifting cultivation - including the method of "slash and burn" and "slash charcoal" - practiced by many tribes. In the method of "slash and burn", wood-trunked trees and plants were cut down and burned to prepare the land for planting - in this way resulted in soil nutrients that increase productivity for a while. When the burning is done thoroughly and left only ashes, soil enrichment not long survive longer and the land must be left unused before it is ready for reuse. However, the method is only partially burned, or "slash and charcoal", can improve soil structure and provide nutrients storage more durable derived from a variety of sources, but it seems to reflect the food processing and waste associated with human existence. Over time, if the cleaning cycle nutrients charcoal repeatedly occurs, the result will be the formation ade (anthropogenic black earth). Improved soil fertility allows indigenous peoples to maintain their livelihoods without the use of expensive chemical fertilizers. It also helps the preservation of forest biodiversity and carbon sequestration by five to seven times, which can last for centuries, even millennia, compared with the surrounding rainforest.
and if you are looking for biochar and confused as where to get it please visit Biochar Soil Improvement, and you can choose according to the needs of your plants growing media.
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source : BPPI