Prospects citrus agribusiness in Indonesia is quite good because of the potential for extensive production land. Through the improvement of resource quality citrus growers and supported by the results of technological innovation and natural hormones fertilization, integrated pest and disease management, as well as other farming systems which are based on the spirit of environmentally friendly will increase the quantity and quality of citrus production while maintaining environmental sustainability.
ORANGE GROWING CONDITIONS
Wind speed which is more than 40-48% would knock flowers and fruit. For areas that intensity and high wind speeds better plant windbreaks planted with rows perpendicular to the wind direction.
Depending on the species, citrus requires 5-6, 6-7 or 9 months wet (rainy season). For wet months this required the development of flowers and fruit in order to keep the soil moist. In Indonesia, this plant is in need of water-enough especially in the month of July-August.
Optimal temperature between 25-30 ° C, but some can still grow normally at 38 ° C. Tangerines Oranges require a temperature of 20 ° C.
All types of citrus do not like places that are protected from sunlight.
For optimum moisture plant growth is about 70-80%.
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING
- grafting way
The grafts are usually obtained from the parent plant that has proven its quality. twigs should not be implanted in diameter less than 1 cm, were adults, and healthy.
If you already have branches ready for the next grafted skin peeled branches in surround width of 1-3 cm, then the part that was open was covered with soil, covered with soil after then wrapped with coconut fiber or plastic which were holes for circulation.
Every day in order to flush the graft was no shortage of water. Within a few days the upper limb grafts will grow roots, the roots grow long after and out of coir, then cut the bottom branches later cropping on land that had already been prepared.
The hole that we have prepared previously had been given a good manure. If the seed treatment is well within three years of an orange tree will bear fruit.
This method is most in demand by citrus growers because it is better than the way grafts, by attaching a spring, young shoots or branches from one plant to another plant stems.
The first way to do we sow the seeds of citrus grafting to obtain an orange tree which will we pasted with buds of other trees.
But not all types of citrus can be used for rootstock, for that we have to look for the kinds of rapid in its growth, so that within 1 or 1.5 years after our seed seedling tree can be used for grafting.
If the trunk is large enough, it is grafted seedlings at a distance of approximately 30 cm from the root. Using a sharp knife, slice the stems of plants ± 1 x 4 cm. then, pasted with existing bark shoots, from other citrus plants, with the same size.
Shoots are tied with a rope attached. Previous dip rope in hot water to kill germs and germs that stick. Tie the rope firmly, and try buds still sticking out.
To maintain dryness should be given shade. The hallmark of these shoots can grow up to be one with the main stem, then the color is still green as before.
After grafting ± 15 days old ties can be removed. Trunks plastered shoots cut ± 10 cm above the bud, over time it becomes apparent a green dot that is the beginning of the shoot.
The root will grow rapidly until it reaches a height of 1.5 meters. Then these plants usually do not survive high, but the stems will grow. After the plant was roughly the size of a pencil, and woody and hard, our peak cut or trim to plant height is only 1 meter away.
When you have such a tree can be moved to the garden. But should the holes should we prepared ahead of time is certainly a huge hole has been given manure first.
Plants should not be planted too deep, then the plant hole with fertile soil piled up to be like a small hill with a plant in the middle.
Not long end of the rod that has been trimmed will be able to grow a branch 3 pieces. But if it will grow another branch, the new branch to be cut. Cutting is done after the tree becomes large.
Tree grafting results in the period between 3-5 years are already delivering results, and the tree is not high so it is easy to pick the fruit.
How to Plant a Seed in the Open Land
A time to plant seeds of good orange is the rainy season to the dry season ahead. Before you begin planting, be aware of the condition of the soil in the planting pits, which are already really wet from top to bottom.
The width and the hole should be enough for the roots entirely, so that the direction of growth can be straight. In addition to the planting hole should be given basic fertilizer with manure and NPK ± 20 kg ± 250 g, or a mixture of urea, TSP, KCL with a ratio of 2: 2: 1.
Citrus planting hole spacing is different for each type. If citrus fruits are great for the hole to be made 8 x 8 m, while tangerines enough with a distance of 5 x 5 m and for the kind of sweet orange and ideal size is 6 x 6 m.
Plant spacing is important because the development of the citrus varies between one and the other kind. Besides, setting a good distance will facilitate the entry of rays of the sun and the wind to the sidelines of citrus plants. Trees that are too close together to be susceptible to diseases and unfavorable development.
Other factors that must be considered in the citrus plant include:
1. Water in the soil should be enough, but it does not stagnate
2. The soil should contain the nutrients and ingredients organism is high enough.
3. The soil should always be loose not easily congested.
4. Rainfall and humidity is quite high.
Maintenance ways Citrus
Fertilizer applied can be either organic or inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers such as manure and compost are very good for improving soil structure so that crumbs. While inorganic fertilizers such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and the elements of the macro or micro nutrients such as Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe, strongly support the growth and health of plants.
Provision of fertilizer to the different citrus crops proportion as to be adapted to the age, species, and nutrient needs. The larger the plant, the more need for fertilizer is needed.
Three months after the seed is planted until a year old, orange require supplementary fertilization 3 times a year, when the old orange 6 months, 9 months and 12 months.
For instance tangerines, the dose for each fertilization is a mixture of urea, TSP, and KCl (1: 1: 1) of 750 grams per tree, or 300 kg per hectare to 400 trees. Dose of fertilizer increased the second year onwards, but the administration is done every 4 months. Fertilizer embedded in a hole as deep as 15-20 cm below the tree canopy environment.
Orange really like humidity and rainfall, irrigation is very important especially dry season. Lack of water at the time of vegetative growth will inhibit the growth of shoots and roots, while in the generative period will result in the loss of flowers or fruit.
Pruning is done on the trees that are weak or diseased, aim to maintain the plant in order to remain fresh, healthy, and productive, in addition to it so that the sun and wind can penetrate between the branches evenly. The trimmed must be burned or buried in the ground this is to avoid the causes of the disease.
4. Maintenance When Flowering
Orange trees aged 3-5 years will be flowering for the first time. Flower buds on the shoots grow, and then it will turn into fruit.
To maintain the productivity of the tree, it should be only a few flowers are allowed to grow into fruit. While the other flowers should be cut .. if the tree has been really strong then let the growing interest in everything.
5. Thinning Fruit
Citrus fruit quality can be determined by where the fruit on the trees and sunlight. Fruits are getting enough sunlight is generally of high quality.
Spacing on citrus trees will have an impact on the quality of the fruit is good, as having a large size, and taste more palatable. Thinning is done on the fruit which is quite big but still the growth process, should not be done on the fruit that is still small it may cut production
In addition to citrus cultivation You can also read articles on the cultivation of fruit - Other fruits such as: