Rat Integrated Pest Management
Rat including two of the most important pests in rice crops and in cultivation of corn. This needs special attention in addition to other pests. Because the loss of production due to pest infestation of mice is quite high. Efforts to control mice has been done by farmers, ranging from sanitation, culture techniques, physical, biological, mechanical and chemical. But admittedly, that means that the control has not been done in an integrated manner, so hope to suppress the rat population at a level that does not harm proved difficult to achieve.
Mice belong to the order Rodentia, muridae family and subfamily Murinae. Subfamily of these two genera that have an important role in human life the genus Mus and Rattus. In general, the rice rat (Rattus orgentiventer) live in paddies and surrounding areas have the ability to multiply very rapidly. If theoretically, the mice were able to breed into 1,270 animals per year from a single pair of rats only. Although this situation is rare, but it illustrates how rapidly the rat population in a year. The development of rat in nature much influenced by environmental factors, especially the availability of food sources, and the rat population will increase with regard to peak during the generative.
Rat activity is more active at night, and very regular daily activities ranging from the search for food, drink, looking for a partner to regional orientation. To avoid the unfavorable environment, the rats usually make nests in moist areas, close to the source of water and food as in the trunk of the tree, between rocks, irrigation lines, embankments, railway and small hills. Farmers can distinguish which is called field mice and rats where the house. In general, one rat in addition to its activities in the field, can also do activities at home. While the house rat (Rattus ratusdiardii) only conduct their activities only at home. Damage caused by the rat can be seen in the rice stalks were cut off and formed 45 degrees and still have the rest of the stems were not cut. In the vegetative phase of mice can damage stems 11-176 per night. While at the time pregnant, ability damage increased to 24-246 rice stalks per night. As rodents, mice in meeting their needs cut off rice stalks with a ratio of 5: 1, ie rice stalks cut off 5 just to sharpen his teeth so no longer mine, and 1 stalk of rice in a meal for their needs.
Owl as Rat Pest Control
Owl is considered creepy often considered to bring bad luck. In some places these birds are hunted depleted because people do not want adversities or want to benefit financially from this exotic bird. Owls are birds ferocious predator that their structure makes it able always suddenly prey. Owl is able to detect prey from a distance. These birds were able to fly fast with silent so that prey may not know what to pounce. But this bird is not harmful to humans, it actually helps control a number of pests, such as rats are highly detrimental to humans. Its ability to detect prey from a distance and his ability lunge quickly without sound as well as its nature as a nocturnal animal (feed at night) makes it ideal for predator rats. Artificial nests are needed because the owl does not make its own nest, the owl always seize or occupy empty nest belonging to another species of birds.
Pest control using natural enemies has many advantages. In addition to not pollute the environment with toxic substances or other pollutants, then as long as it is maintained by both natural enemies are also grown and developed so the day is not depleted as inventories pile of pesticides. And another thing, the natural enemies are happy to work alone while we can sleep soundly waiting for the results of its work.
Owls including bird species nocturnal or active at night. Very sharp vision where he can see their prey from a distance. His life in groups and quickly multiply. Parent owl is able to lay eggs 2 -3 times a year. Once the spawn can reach 6 to 12 grains with a period incubate for 27 to 30 days.
Rat became one of the specific food owl. Owl adults can prey on mice 2 to 5 rats each day, if the rat is hard to come by, not infrequently these birds roam hunting areas up to 12 km from the nest. Remarkably, he has a very sharp hearing and being able to hear the sound of mice from a distance of 500 meters.
- Being able to effectively suppress the rat population (capable of consuming rat tails to 5 per day).
- No negative impact on the environment.
- Does not require great expense and effort.
- Improving the efficiency of a farmer.
Classification Owl Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
- Phylum Chordata.
- Subphylum Vertebrates.
- Class Aves.
- The Order Strigiformes.
- Family Strigidae.
- Genus Tyto; consists of 10 species.
- Tyto alba (Barn Owl) consists of 35 sub-species.
Morphological characters Tyto alba
- Big head, beak like a hook.
- Have sturdy claws.Eyes wide with a disc-
- shaped face, help focus the sound of dating.
- Round-shaped wings and short tails.
- Soft fur, white or yellow on the bottom.
- The upper side head yellowish with black stripes.
- At the top of the eye is brown.
Tyto genus consists of 10 species, including owls from Africa (Grass Owl) and Australia and New Guinea (Masked Owl).
Owl Tyto alba (Barn Owl) consists of 35 sub-species.
Distribution of owl Tyto alba can be found in Europe, many in North America and parts of South America, spread includes most of Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands.
Deployment in South and Southeast Asia covering India, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Java.
Behavior and Habitat
- Active at night (nocturnal), hiding during the day.
- Inhabit tree holes, the roof of the building, ravines or cliffs.
- Tree or planting area.
- Never found nesting on the ground.
- Can nest in artificial enclosures.
- Generally limited to oil palm plantations, due to lack of places.
- Always found in residential areas surrounding the traditional palm oil, a low number.
- Can be developed in rice fields.
- Location rice farming, around a lot of trees.
- Are not migratory.
- Generally, as the resident animals 1.6 to 5.6 km around the nest.
The application pattern
Based on my experience with farmers in applying Tyto alba bird pest control rat could be classified into 2.
Quarantine Tyto Alba is to maintain Tyto alba bird before the off, can be of tillers or maintain adult.
- Tyto alba bird maintain adult will require greater costs because it must meet the needs of feed each day, and it took a very long time so that the birds Tyto alba want to live or nest in the place provided.
- Maintaining bird Tyto alba were still saplings, to be more patient and have the ability to maintain and care for the animals, especially food that is given should be in accordance with the food originally namely rodents (rats), and this becomes a new job because he could not be sure we get the mice every day to feed.
In installing owl direct costs required smaller, just by installing birdhouses capital Tyto alba in a place that would be a place for pest control mice although there are also disadvantages.
- Not all of the habitat and hunting area (foraging) Tyto alba bird.
- It takes a long time, because of the nature of Tyto alba loyal birds in the nest means we have to wait for the new bird tyto alba who do not have a nest
Good luck and remain optimistic, because I am applying pest control mice using Owl Tyto alba from the beginning it took more than 2.5 years to be said to succeed indicators: the number of birds Tyto alba increasing, in 3 times the rice planting season did not happen rodent pest attacks and as an illustration for sex owl Tyto alba for males are usually white feathers over the bottom of the owl Tyto alba females.
So few reviews I can say about Bird Tyto alba As Pest Control Rat Effective and Environmentally Friendly, may be useful to readers, especially friends of farmers, and do not forget to be shared in order to be more useful.