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Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results

Carp Fish (Osphronemus gouramy, Lacepede) is a freshwater fish Anabantidae family. This fish has a flat body shape and width. In fish grown, wide-body almost twice the length of the head or ¾ times the body length. Head shape carp are still young taper to the front, and after the old becomes low and flat. The color of her body, especially on the back is red-brown, while the belly yellowish or silvery. A pair of pelvic fins of carp will change into a pair of long threads which serves as a feeler. The fins are hard to stick to his back while the lines intersect the ribs at the bottom of the dorsal fin. The maximum body length of 65 cm.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Carp is a freshwater fish that nowadays more and more cultivated. This is because carp has several advantages compared to the type of other freshwater fish, such as having a high tolerance level to the environment, the taste of meat typical (good), the level of the high life, so it can be cultivated in a high density in various conditions waters there. Carp is one commodity that has been developed by farmers, this is because the market demand is quite high.

This fish is one type of fish consumption is well known and much in demand in Indonesia. This is because carp has the advantages of meat taste delicious, easy maintenance, and prices are relatively stable. This fish has long been known and have been widely cultivated. However, attempts are being made to support the direction of intensive cultivation has not been widely implemented.

Along with the times and increasing population growth coupled with the increasing need for animal protein by people every year hence, the need for increased production of carp, the need for expansion of the cultivation of carp with increased production of fish in bulk, both in quantity and quality, so can be used as a new commodity to the other fish commonly marketed.

Classification carp
In the various Regions, carp are known by various names, including, Gurameh (Java), carp (Sundanese, Betawi), if, when, Alui (Sumatra). In English, it is called giant gourami gouramy.

According to Bleeker were later refined by Sunier, Weber and de Beaufort, carp classification as follows:

Phylum: Cordata
Subphylum: Vertebrates
Class: Pisces
Nation: Labirinthici
Tribe: Anabantidae
Marga: Osphronemus
Species: Osphronemus gouramy Lac.

Morphology Fish Carp
These fish have a lateral line single, complete and uninterrupted, scaly stenoid and has teeth on the lower jaw. Tail fin rounded. The radius of the first weak pelvic fins are long threads which serves as a feeler. Height 2.0 s / d 2.1 times of standard length. At the young fish are colored vertical stripes of black numbered 8 to 10 pieces, and the area of ​​the tail are black dot round (Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Sukabumi, 2002).

Carp also has a flattened shape typical physical body, rather long and wide. The bodies covered with scales strong with a rather rough edge. A small mouth, is located just below the sloping not muzzle end. Seen protruding lower lip than the upper lip slightly. The tip of the mouth can be flushed out so that it looks forward.

Adult carp appearance different from the young. Differences can be observed based on body size, color, shape of the head and forehead. Color and behavior of young carp is much more interesting than adult carp (Sitanggang and Sarwono, 2001). While the young fish are eight vertical lines. Dark spots with yellow or silvery colored edges found on the body above the anal fin and on the base of the pectoral fins are black spots (Susanto, 2001).

Carp classified in order Labirynthici who have additional breathing apparatus called the labyrinth, which folds the respiratory epithelium which is derived from the first gill sheet, so that the fish can take oxygen directly from the air. The presence of this additional breathing apparatus allows carp can live in waters of low oxygen levels (Department of Agriculture, 1999).

Type - the type of Carp Fish
The types of carp that have been long known only two types, namely carp Soang (goose) and carp japanese (Japan). However, there are currently several new strains of carp. There are allegations that the new strain is a strain of carp offspring or cross-breeding of carp japanese and carp Soang are adjusted in each region.

Soang carp (Geese)
Designation carp carp Soang given on this type because it has two fairly prominent forehead both male and female. While the horns of the forehead is not visible on the female carp from other carp species. Carp fish male body is long and slender with chin bulge more visible than Soang female carp. Carp Soang including 2 types of carp that the suspect originally from Indonesia. Soang carp species, are found in the area ciamis, tasikmalaya and the surrounding area in western Java.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Superior to the carp Soang seen faster growth compared with the other two types of carp. Within one year since the form of eggs, heavy carp geese reach 700 gr / tail. It caused more voracious carp species Soang in consuming feed and have a movement that is more agile when responding feed.
Soang carp body shape slightly elongated and flattened to the high side. The length of the body reaches maximum height 65 cm 2-21 times higher in carp generally, and has a weight of 8 kg. On the body there Soang carp lateral line single line clearly visible. Slightly rounded body scales are large, and brown with black spots at the base of the pectoral fins. Soang small carp have reddish scales, especially on the tail and looks a vertical line as much as 5-12 pieces and will disappear when it starts up.

Productivity Soang carp species is higher compared with other types of carp, carp Soang usually can produce seeds begin 3-5 years. The number of eggs that produced even more at around 5000 to 7000 grains per head.

Japanese carp (Japan)
Japanese carp varieties (Japan) has also been long known in Indonesia. Carp has a shorter body size compared carp geese. The body length is about 45 CM japanese carp with a body weight of about 3-4 kg. When small, japanese carp bluish body and turned into a black or dark somewhat when it starts up. Carp scales is also smaller than carp goose. Japanese carp egg production range from 2000-3000 grains / head.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Carp cotton
Carp cotton has a silvery white body color like cotton with a rather large and coarse scales. Adult carp body weight cotton reached 1.5 kg per head. Within one year of this carp weight of 1,000 g / tail starting from the eggs hatch. Fecundity eggs are produced in a single spawn about 3,000 grains per head. Carp this type typically encountered in many areas magelang - central Java.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Mongrel carp
Body colored carp hybrid bit to victimization, whereas plain white head. his head is not so prominent forehead and a rather large size scales. despite its rapid growth, the production of hybrid carp are not so much, which is about 2,000 -3 000 eggs per fish in a spawning. Hybrid varieties of carp species can be encountered in areas of western Java.

Carp paris
Paris carp body colored bright red base. At the head of this paris carp are white, while the body are black spots. Paris carp has a maximum weight of 1.5 kg per head. Once the carp spawn in paris able to produce eggs around 5000 to 6000 grains per head.

Carp bluesafir
Bluesafir carp body has a bright pink color. Body weight per fish carp carp bluesafir heavier than paris is about 2 kg. Female parent bluesafir carp have the ability to spawn with the fecundity of 3,000 eggs per kg weight of the mother.

Carp stone
Carp stone has a rather black body color and more rugged scales. This type of carp are very rarely encountered because growth is very slow and farmers prefer this type of carp fish other than carp stone.

Carp porcelain
Carp porcelain has a smaller head size of his body. His body was bright pink, while the lower part of his body slightly whitish color. The ability of the porcelain carp spawn more stout because it can produce about 10,000 eggs grains only with the parent body weight of about 1.5 kg to 2 kg per fish.
Based on the types of carp that are currently developed, the type of carp that have superior to the number of seeds produced are carp Soang (goose), bluesafir carp, carp paris. This caused the number terlur that produced the three types of carp reached 5,000 grains. But in terms of the growth of the body, mongrel carp faster growing and have immune system stronger.

Complete Guide In Carp Fish Farming
Carp Fish hatcheries
Selecting Parent
Parent that is used should reach the age of 3 years.
To distinguish between male and female parent can be seen from the following characteristics:

Female parent
Basic female fish have pectoral fins dark or blackish color, the color of the female fish chin whitish or slightly brown, if placed on the floor, the female fish did not show any reaction. Should have been aged 3 to 7 years.

Male parent
The males have the fin base light colored or whitish, have a yellow chin, thicker than the females and panhandle. Male parent when placed on the floor or the ground will show the reaction by raising the base of the tail fin upwards.

Aside from knowing the differences in male and female parent, should also be known for the success of this carp hatchery. Parent has been aged 3 to 7 years. In contrast to the parent fish ponds, carp stem this growing age of the eggs will issue more and more, will be rounded belly and relatively long with bright body colors. The scales are not disabled earned / lost and are still in a state of neatly arranged.

The mother who is old enough and mature sex is characterized by belly will swell to the back or near the anus. In the anal canal will appear reddish white. And if we try to feel flabby belly would porch.

Spawning
Water intake is done early in the morning, so that the pond has been ahead of the 10:00 half filled with water. The parents who have passed the selection included in the pool carefully and lovingly. Comparison between the number of male and female parent usual 1: 1 - 14. With the hope of at least the male parent can marry two breeding females in one pull. Once released into the spawning pond is usually the male parent is not automatically instantly make nests, but first take a walk, swim to it here and know the area. After 15 days of release, the male parent is usually directly preoccupied by activities make nests.

The center line of the nest is usually less than 30 cm, which is usually done by the male parent for a week (7 days). Once the nest is completed, the male parent quickly find and woo the female parent to come together to spawn in the nest. The female parent will squirt their eggs into the nest through a small nest hole, then males will spray his sperm, which eventually happened fertilization in the palace these fibers. Unlike carp nurseries are only a few hours, spawning carp usually lasts long enough. The male parent in charge of guarding the nest for spawning takes place. After spawning is completed, usually turn to the female parent in charge of maintaining the offspring, by first closing the nest hole with fibers or dry grass.

With his instinct as a good parent, usually the mother is keeping her son did not forget to wag the tail fin flipper especially towards the nest. The female parent fin movements will increase the dissolved oxygen content in water. Water with sufficient oxygen content will help incubate the eggs in the nest. For as is known, the eggs also need oxygen in the process becoming the seed fish. With affection while maintaining descendants female parent, male parent will return construct the nest and the female parent lure others to continue their offspring. From the top of the pool we can know the parents who have been spawned without going down to the pond to see the fishy smell, and the visible presence of oil layer just above the spawning nests.

Hatching
Hatching eggs can be done at the aquarium or plastic buckets. How to remove the eggs from the nest to the aquarium done carefully not too rough to avoid the egg does not break. Nest materials of fibers that are 5 cm below the water surface and has been sealed, removed by means inserted into the bucket of a bucket 3/4 section. Nest facing up and drowned then slowly pushes the cover is opened, then the eggs will come out and float on the surface of the water. Further egg removed by using a small plate to be moved to the aquarium or tub filled bucket of clean water that has been deposited. Replacement of water conducted regularly so that the eggs hatch perfectly and eggs that did not hatch immediately issued. The eggs will hatch within 30 ~ 36 hours.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Separating
During the 5 days the seeds do not need extra food, because they suck the yolk (yolk sack). After the expiry of that seeds need food to be supplied from outside. Therefore, if it still has not spread in the pond should be fed infusoria. If you want to seed sown in the pool, the pool must be drained and fertilized with manure 1 kg / m2.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
Then spray / pour bottom of the pool with a solution Migro Pond (10 ml Migro Pond: water 1 liter) evenly with a dose of 2 liters per hectare (20 ml Migro Pond / 100 m2). Let stand for 5-7 days.

Then enter the water slowly, give back Migro Pond with a dose of 0.02 ppm (2 liters per hectare).
Seed sown, when the pool water has turned into greenish.

Carp seed age of 7 days can be marketed to the breeders seed sales system so that the frequency hatchery nests can be improved.

Preparation Swimming
After the carp seed seeds you get, the next step in the way of cultivation of carp is preparing for an enlargement of the media as a seed carp you.

Carp cultivation way you can do in the pool that you create by stirring the ground and using the media to create a pool tarp. Advantages of ground pool is the growth of plankton - natural plankton that can be used as natural food for your carp fingerlings. While the advantage of the pool which is made of tarp is in terms of the efficiency of expenditure in relation to making carp pond.
Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results
How to aquaculture carp with media ground pool you can do by digging the soil to a depth of approximately 1 meter and then let stand for 1 week excavation to reduce the toxicity of existing soil. After that fill the land with a pond of stagnant water and leave for 1 week so that the plankton begin to proliferate before seed carp inserted.

Using tarpaulin media is a way of cultivation of carp others. Assemble tarpaulin forming a rectangular pool with a wood frame and bamboo crutch. Once the tarp is assembled to resemble a pool, fill it with water and let stand for 1 week to neutralize tarpaulins of chemicals and stimulate the growth of plankton as the first meal of carp seed.

How to cultivation of carp using tarpaulin media help facilitate you in replacement of water and cleaning the pool. The pool water mixed with dirt carp also have to be replaced regularly to maintain the cleanliness and health of carp pond itself.

Ways Spreading Seeds
The next stage in the cultivation of carp way after the pool is ready to sow the seeds of carp seed into the pond. But before carp incorporated into new habitats necessary to adapt that carp do not stress that can affect mortality in carp.

As for how to adapt is putting the carp carp fish seed is still in the sealed plastic into an already filled with water. Allow a moment until you see moisture on the plastic wall, which means the water temperature in the plastics is the same as the temperature of the pool water.

Afterwards, the plastic slowly open and let the seeds carp out by itself. Do it on all your carp fingerlings.

Feeding
The next step in the way of cultivation of carp are feeding. When carp in the form of seeds are animal foods including water fleas, silk worms and zooplankton similar microbial food. It was only after the carp adulthood, they are herbivores are plant eaters. Feed given a different course when carp is still a seedling.

Supplementary Feed
Efforts to find a replacement leaves once favored carp is the key to raising carp body, which is considered quite effective today by providing extra food has a high protein content. On the Job Training activities have 3 types of food additives, ie pellets, snail, and insects (crickets)

Pellet is a supplementary food for the carp are already known. Forming material pellet is nothing but a mixture of various foodstuffs such as fish meal, blood meal, meat meal, leaf flour, bran flour, and so forth. Among the materials are high in protein mixed with foods low in a certain ratio, to obtain a protein content as desired. And the form of pellets as the grains of chalk but smaller.

Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) Is one of the important pests in paddy rice cultivation. For animals like aquatic habitats, life and movement (mobility) golden snail is strongly influenced by the state of water in the habitat. With the availability of the golden snail in significant amounts in nature, especially in the area of ​​rice fields, the golden snail can be used as a feed supplement for fish other than just act as a pest of rice

Insects as food additives carp can also exploit the potential of insects that like to wander at night. In fact, although carp including fish herbivores (plant eaters), they do not refuse when a when (accidentally) there are insects that fall into the pool. For and because of this, we can use a lot of insects around us as food carp an inexpensive, but high in protein content.

Maintenance Pool
The way to be successful cultivation of carp can not be separated from the cleanliness of the pool. The pool water mixed with dirt from thousands of carp certainly not healthy for the development of fish if left were not replaced.

Do the cleaning and replacement of pool water regularly every single week. Water suction hose to approximately 50% of the pool water discharge. After that change the pool water with fresh water to a height as before. Carp cultivation this way so that the health of the fish is maintained. Given the good sanitation is indispensable for growth.

Pests and Diseases Carp
Pests and diseases in the cultivation of carp often cause failures and huge losses. The few things that cause diseases such as pond fertility effects of fertilization, food, high fish densities and poor water quality (Kabata, 1985).

Pests are animals that are larger in size and capable of causing disturbance to the fish. Some carp main predators of pests are often found in the cultivation of carp are snakes, eels, frogs, and fish-eating birds. Judging from the predatory types of water according to Heinz and Kline (1973), the main enemy of carp divided into wild predatory fish and several species of fish-keeping. To avoid the carp from fish predators, the water intake pipe mounted filter fish so pests do not enter into the pool.

Types of diseases that often interfere in the cultivation of carp is white spot disease (White spots) caused by protozoa species Ichthyopthirius multifilis that attack the seed and stem carp. This protozoan parasite becomes difficult to eradicate because its presence is often covered by mucus impenetrable by drug solution (Kabata, 1985). They attacked the fish under the mucous membrane of fish which is the main stronghold for the fish (Kabata, 1985).

In addition, the type of disease that often attacks the stem carp is Argulus indicus. This parasitic crustacean relatively low rate of life as ectoparasites. According Radiopoetro (1983), Argulus indicus attached to the fins or scales on the stem of carp.

Harvest
The last stage of carp farming is harvesting. Usually carp you can already harvest approximately 4 to 6 months from seed carp was added to the pool. But it depends on the needs of the market. If the market demand is more like carp young and not too big, of course, within 4 months you've been able to harvest the carp.

Source :
Asmawi, S. 1983. Maintenance Fish in Cage. Gramedia, Jakarta.
Rusdi, T. 1988. Cultivation carp. Simplex, Jakarta. 73 pp.
Agriculture department. 1986. Raising carp. Indonesian Agricultural Information Center.

Thus I can convey information about Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results, hopefully what has been delivered can be useful, and do not forget to share with others, especially for those who are interested to develop the cultivation of carp fish. And good luck.
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Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results

Groupers Fish (Epinephelus sp) is generally known as "groupers" and is the one commodity that has a good chance of marketed domestically and internationally and on the other the solid resale value is high enough. Export grouper drove rapidly by 350% from 19 tonnes in 1987 to 57 tons in 1988 (Ministry of Agriculture, 1990).
Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results
Grouper is one of the most popular reef fish in the Asia-Pacific region and has a fairly high export value. One type of grouper that have economic value as high as tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). Tiger grouper generally grow fast, strong and suitable for intensive cultivation and traditional as well as having distinctiveness in the post-harvest and presentation in consumption (Tarwiyah, 2001).

The newly hatched grouper larvae have food reserves in the form of egg yolk. This feed will be used until day 2 (D2) after hatching and during this period the larvae do not require external. Age 3 days (D3) yolk began to be absorbed, needs to be fed from the outside in the form of Rotifera Brachionus plicatilis at a density of 1-3 fish / ml. Besides, it also added chlorella sp Phytoplankton with densities between 5:10 - 10 cells / ml. These larvae feeding until the age of 16 days (D16) with the addition gradually until it reaches the density of 5-10 individuals / ml plytoplankton 10 - 2:10 cells / ml media. On the ninth day (D9) started to be fed newly hatched Artemia nauplii at a density of 0.25 to 0.75 fish / ml media. Artemia nauplii feeding is done until the larvae was 25 days (D25) with increased densities of up to 2-5 fish / ml media. Besides, on a day to seventeen (D17) larvae begin fed Artemia that has been aged 1 day, then gradually feed given was changed from Artemia aged 1 day to Artemia half the adult and finally an adult until the larvae aged 50 days (Slamet, 1993) ,

Groupers have a habit of eating in the morning before sunrise and before sunset. In nature grouper feeding while swimming among corals, grouper never want to take or consume feed given when they get to the base, although grouper in a state of hunger. Grouper usually dwells at the base and will not ambush feed given if they are already full (Akbar, 2002).

A kind of parasite infestation, which is shaped like Argulus crustacean groups, much attack in the nursery grouper. These parasites such as fleas flat-shaped, measuring 2-3 mm, attached to the surface of the fish's body, especially on the skin and fins. The attack in large amounts will result in death, because this parasite sucking the blood of its prey fish and the resulting hollow body, so that the fish are susceptible to secondary infections that fungi and bacteria. The new treatment of parasites of fish is quite a way immersion. Fish usually heal after 2-3 days later. If the fish has been injured can be done submersion in fresh water, followed by immersion in a solution of 10 ppm acriflavin / h (Mayunar, 1991).

The characteristics of the common presence of a fish disease is loss of appetite. Usually often swimming in the water for swimming bubbles swell. Grouper sometimes have fin rot and ulcers, this happens mainly due to bacterial infection. When a lot of fish that show these symptoms, then antibiotics should be given immediately. Oral administration of ampicillin (5-20 mg / kg body weight of fish) or Oxolinic acid (10-30 mg) was quite effective for this infection. On grouper aquaculture, the biggest problem is the disease by viruses, such as infection by Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) and Iridovirus. Occasional attacks of the disease, there will be a high mortality. Until now, there has been no way of treatment for this disease (Kisto, 1991).

In the tank experiment adult female fish will spawn when approaching male. When the time arrives spawn, male and female fish will swim along the surface of the water. Spawning occurs at night, between 18:00 to 22:00. the number of eggs produced depends on the weight of the female body, the female sample weighing 8 kg of grain can produce 1,500,000 eggs. The fertilized egg is "non-adhesive" which eggs are not attached to one another egg. Egg shape is spherical and transparent with a diameter of about 0.80 to 0.85 mm. The fertilized eggs will hatch into active seed dip (Sigit, 1993).

Groupers have properties favorable for cultivation because of rapid growth and can be mass produced to serve the market demand groupers alive (Anonymous, 2010).
Grouper is a fish species that has significant economic value to be cultivated in Asia (Kohno et al., 1993), because the price is expensive and an export commodity (Giri et al., 2001). Grouper culture in Indonesia is increasing quite rapidly. This increase is supported by the knowledge of cultivation techniques is growing, the limited resources of grouper in nature are dwindling due to over exploitation, as well as the increasing market demand, especially from countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and China (Rukyani, 2001) ,

Pioneers grouper culture was first performed by the Japanese state, namely the type of grouper Epinephelus akaara around 1960 (Ukawa et al., 1966). Then developed into several other countries, such as China, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The types of grouper have been successfully cultivated in Indonesia is the tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), grouper mud (E. tauvina), batik grouper (E. Microdon) and grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) (Setyadi et al., 2001; Imanto et al ., 2001; Marzuqi et al., 2001; ISMI et al, 2001).

Although the production of fish seed grouper in quantity is sufficient market demand, but still encountered several obstacles, among others: the survival of fluctuating (INGOs et al., 2001) and the high rate of abnormalities of fish seed produced (Barahona-Fernandes, 1982).

Factors that have been identified as the cause of abnormalities in fish farming, among other things: genetics, disease, nutrition, vitamins, pollutants, and the maintenance of environmental conditions (Boglione et al., 2001; Koumoundouros et al., 1997).

Environmental conditions of maintenance with the use of oil squid at the surface of the water can prevent the occurrence of mass mortality on the water surface, triggered by nature fototaksis positive larvae to light, so that the larvae tend to move toward the light at the surface of the water and trapped by the surface tension of the water (Stefansson et al ., 1990). With the squid oil layer will cover the surface tension of water (Setiadi et al., 2003; Sugama et al., 2001; Yamaoka et ai., 2000).

Yamaoka et ai. (2000) reported that trapping the larvae on the surface of the water due to the slime on the surface of the larva's body trapped by the surface tension of water, so that the larvae can not release from the bondage to run out of energy and eventually die. Furthermore it is said that the body parts are trapped, especially the dorsal and caudal. Alleged that the larvae are caught on the surface of the water and then managed to escape will affect the process of bone formation, especially on the part of the body is entangled causing abnormality.

The study results showed that the abnormal fish that have a negative impact that slow growth, low viability, are vulnerable to disease, easy to stress, and has a low resale value in the market. (Andrades et at., 1996; Matsuoka, 1984; Papema et ai., 1977; Hilomen-Garcia, 1977).

In the following Complete Guide to Raising Ducks And Fish Grouper Tiger Grouper

Hatchery
Requirements Hatchery Location
Good hatchery site requirements include technical and non-technical factors. Technical factors are all requirements that must be met in tiger grouper hatchery activities directly related to the technical aspects of producing seed (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2005). Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) some important aspects that must be met is the location of the hatchery on the beach to facilitate the acquisition of the source of seawater. The beach is not too flat with conditions that are not muddy sea floor and easily accessible to facilitate transportation. The sea water must be clean, not contaminated with the salinity of 28-35 ppt. Source of sea water can be pumped at least 20 hours per day. Source of fresh water available to a maximum of 5 ppt salinity.
Non-technical factors are complementary and supporting technical factors in site selection seeding. Location requirements that are included in non-technical factors include several conveniences such as transportation, communications, electrical installation, labor, marketing, laboratories, dormitories, places of worship and health services. In addition, other things that can support the business continuity of the support of the local government, including the support of local communities (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2005).
Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results

Maintenance Seed
Preparation Hatchery
Minjoyo, et al., (1998) stated that the tub seed maintenance is usually rectangular or round with a water depth of 1 - 1.5 m. Commonly used bath is 10-20 tons. The use of large-sized tub that aims to reduce fluctuations in temperature, especially when the larvae was aged 0-10 days. First, tubs cleaned then dried and rinsed with chlorine.

Solid Spreading Seeds
Solid stocking namely the large number of fish were sown per unit area or volume. If the population or stocking density is too dense, the fish are highly vulnerable to disease. Stocking of overcrowding could lead to slower growth and higher mortality during maintenance (Sudradjat, 2008). In addition, the high density will cause higher mortality rates as well. Death occurs due to the high level of competition, so that eventually led to cannibalism properties grouper seed (Subyakto and Cahyaningsih, 2003). Fish stocking density is too high will lead to lower food consumption because it will reduce the flexibility of fish to move toward food, so that the length and weight of fish seed is not obtained with the optimal (Endrawati et al., 2008).

Endrawati et al., (2008) to determine the growth of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) were maintained with different stocking density, the experiments were conducted in aquariums measuring 40 x 40 x 60 cm, with 10 liters of sea water media. Grouper larvae used 4 weeks old with initial length of 2.33 cm and a weight of 0.25 grams. The treatment applied by the density of 5, 10 and 15 fish per tank, maintenance carried out for 4 weeks. The results showed that the average - average weight gain and length is best reached tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) with a density of 5 mice / container weighing 3.67 grams and 0.63 cm long. Weight gain and length of the lowest in the treatment of 15 birds / container amounted to 2.16 grams and 0.5 cm. This suggests the existence of competition and cannibalism. In the study Supriyatna et al (2008), the effect of stocking density on the growth of tiger grouper are maintained in a controlled container. Testing is done with the treatment densities respectively 50, 100, 150 head in a concrete tank size 4 m3, with initial weight of 33-43 g and a total length of 12-14 cm. With a stocking density of 50 birds / tub showed good length and weight of the fish in the tail maintained at densities of 100 and 150 animals / curtains.

Weft
Groupers are wild marine fish (carnivores) and cannibalistic nature will arise when a shortage of feed. Therefore, the feed must be sufficient both quantity and quality. Selection of the type and size of the right feed will affect the efficiency of feed utilization. Feed used may be of natural food / feed fresh or artificial feed. Trash fish is fresh feed used for groupers are cultured in floating cages. Trash fish used endeavored that in a fresh state. Fresh fish feed must be chopped up in accordance with the size of the fish's mouth openings. If it has been rotten or damaged should not be used because it can result in death of the fish, the feed given to the system addlibitum ie where feeding it a little - a little until the fish is full (Sudirman and Karim, 2008).

Water Quality Management
On the first day after hatching after cleaning to throw shells and egg hatch. Minjoyo et al, (1998) stated larvae 2-7 days cleaning is not done because they are still in a critical period so desperately need stable environmental conditions. Cleaning is done on larvae 8-20 days every 3 days, larvae 21 days cleaning is done every 2 days. Substitution of water began in larvae 8-15 days as much as 5-10% every 3 days. At larvae 15-25 days as much as 10-25% and the age of 25-35 days as much as 20-30% every day. At the age of 35- 45 days the larvae as much as 40-60% every day.

Size uniformity (Grading)
Minjoyo et al, (1998) stated that the grading is to homogenize the maintenance of fish placed in a container and is not a solution to address the nature of cannibalism cannibal but reducing properties. Cannibal nature of lowering the level of the population and the most appropriate way to reduce it is to provide an optimal feed. Grading on fish larvae made at the time was 35 days in which the larvae have become the seed.

Cultivation Grouper Grouper Ducks and Grouper Tigers

Provision of seeds
Seed should be filled cultivation of selected before enlargement. Seed that is not normal (deformity) are relatively weak and susceptible to disease. In addition, the fish tend to show slower growth.

Spreading Seeds
Fish weighing 5-10 grams stocked as many as 75-100 head / m3 for size 10-50 grams of seed can be stocked as many as 40-50 tails / m3. Feed given in the form of fish or pellets. If you want to do with the cultivation of grouper fish feed pellets, the most important requirement for the seeds with pellet feed during the breeding period is fulfilled.

To boost immunity and reduce stress fish, it is advisable to add vitamin C into pellets. Tiger grouper including predatory fish species. Therefore, the cultivation of fish require fresh fish feed bins or high-protein pellets.

Food eaten grouper swallowed 95% after 36 hours in the stomach so that the feeding is done every day. At times of stress, these fish will regurgitate food that has been eaten.

Feeding
Selection of the type of feed for enlargement should be based on the willingness of the fish to eat the food provided, quality, nutrition and price or economic value. In general, for grouper given fresh trash fish because they are relatively inexpensive, can also be made in the form of pellet feed as a substitute for trash fish.

Feeding frequency
The success of enlargement grouper is highly dependent on the adequacy of feed. In the early stages of the enlargement, the feeding is done as often as possible until the fish is completely satisfied, at least three times a day. The next phase feeding time and frequency of administration should be appropriate to both the growth and use of feed to be efficient, since it relates to digestion and energy consumption. We recommend feeding 2 times a day during the morning and afternoon. Fresh fish feed must be chopped up in accordance with the size of the fish's mouth openings.

Giving Multivitamin
The usefulness of adding a multivitamin to increase the immune fish that can grow normally, in addition, it can prevent overdoses and scoliosis or body bent due to the development of the spine are not perfect. Another benefit is that it can increase the survival rate of fish, or lower mortality rates, affect the performance of the fish, the body color becomes brighter and aggressive. Can also be given extra vitamin C as much as 2 g / kg of feed given 2 times per week.

Monitoring Growth Fish
To determine the dosage of the feed necessary to measure the weight and length of the fish by means of sampling (random) 10% minimum of once a month. Fish anesthetized before measured. Deaths during maintenance is also calculated to obtain the value of SR (the survival) during maintenance. The growth rate of fish is influenced by the type of feed, the amount given and the quality of feed. Grouper fish growth rate from 1 to 1.3 g / day, while the growth rate of tiger grouper 2.5-3 g / day.
Grouper are maintained with initial weight of 1.3 grams and 4 cm total length will be weighed between 400-500 grams for 12-14 months, while the tiger grouper can be harvested in the seventh with a weight of 525 grams. Weight gain grouper relatively slower than the tiger grouper this is possible because genetically it is slow growing.
Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results

Sorting Size
Tiger grouper fish, including wild and cannibal properties. Therefore, sorting activities or uniformity of size should be routinely performed. This is done so that every net was filled only fish of the same size, if there are differences in the size of the smaller fish will compete with the bigger fish in obtaining food, it can cause many deaths.

Uniformity of size is done starting from the beginning of the enlargement and subsequently forwarded a minimum of every two weeks, especially when there are variations in size. Size sorting is done by nets and fish raised are taken and placed in a plastic bucket with a capacity of 100 liters, then the fish are selected by size and put back in the container maintenance.

Care Net
Care and control of the net during the enlargement absolutely necessary. Dirty nets can hinder the exchange of water and oxygen and inhibits the growth and cause disease in pet fish. Replacement nets were dirty with clean carried out at least 3 weeks. The nets were dirty dried until dry and then washed by spraying water. Once clean dried back to dry before being used again if the controlled nets are damaged or broken.

Observations Fish Health and Water Quality
Fish health surveillance needs to be done visually and organs for observing the morphology of parasites and fish. While microscopic observations performed in the laboratory for examination of the body of pathogens (parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses).

How to measure water quality (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, ammonium sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, chlorine, etc.) is done by using a thermometer for temperature, refractometer to measure salinity, pH meter or litmus paper for measuring pH, DO meter to measure dissolved oxygen and water quality test kit to measure water quality more adapted to guide the work of each tool used. Frequency of measurements performed at least twice a week.

Pest and disease Grouper Fish
Tiger grouper cultivated at home is often defective in gill cover, mouth, and neck of unknown cause is not clear. General characteristics of the disease is the loss of fish appetite.

Conditions are very important observation to detect the presence of disease in fish feed. When the bad health conditions change grouper usually often swim in the water because the swim bladder to swell. If there is a type of fish, the observations to determine the cause must be done immediately. seed rate is often attacked by VNN.

Symptoms include discoloration becomes darker, slow swimming and spinning. VNN attacking a major effect on the rate of growth of the seed. To avoid this disease, the eggs used must be free of VNN. parasitic worms that infect the skin easily farmed groupers. To suppress the parasitic effect on fish,

You have to soak in fresh water fish (5 minutes) and to replace the nets every 2-4 weeks. Meanwhile, parasites, such as worms, otters can be cleaned by soaking the fish in the water of high salinity (ppt during 15-60 minutes).

Harvest
Tiger grouper can be harvested after 5 months sized 600 g / head. Generally, the size obtained after 6-8 months of maintenance. Harvesting systems can be either totally or selectively depending on the needs. The same way as fish harvesting crops in the cage.

Source :
Akbar M. 1995. Grouper Fish Hatchery in Central Lampung Cultivation Sea. DG Fisheries.
Sigit Budileksono, 1993. Natural Spawning Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in Controlled Bak. Raising bulletin.
Slamet, B. 1993. Effects of temperature decline Media Against Delay Hatching Density Optimization and Improvement in Transportation Eggs Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) J. Pen. Aquaculture Beach, Special Issue, Vol.9 5: 30-36.

Thus the description of Knowing Complete Guide In Cultivating Grouper Fish For Maximum Results, hopefully what is presented can be useful to readers, and do not forget to share, especially for those who are interested to cultivate grouper fish.
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Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results

History Tilapia Fish
Tilapia from areas of eastern Africa as under the Nile, Lake Tangayika, Nigeria in the early development of tilapia is still classified in the group Tilapia. In the development of the fish taxonomists classify this type of Sarathrodon Tilapia niloticus or groups that are incubating eggs in female fish called Mouth Breeder. Name tilapia taken from the place of origin, namely the Nile (Satyani, 2001).
Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results
Tilapia many dareah live in rivers and lakes. Tilapia is suitable to be maintained in the calm waters, pond or reservoir. Tilapia is a tropical fish that live in warm waters coming from the African continent and has the property of rapidly grow and multiply at a young age, approximately 3.6 months (khoironi, 1996).

Tilapia will be able to survive in water with a salinity of 50 g / l and grow well in water with a salinity 18ppt. while tilapia by species Tilapia and Tilapia nilotica Aurea will breed and grow well in water salinity range of 10-20 g / l (Boya, 1990).

Classification of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Based saanin (1984), tilapia are classified as follows:
Phylum: Chordata
Sub Phylum: Vertebrates
Class: Osteichtyes
Sub-class: Acanthoptherigii
Order: Perchomophi
Sub order: Percoidea
Family: Chicildae
Species: Oreochromis. Sp

According sucipto and Prihartono (2005) Tilapia are classified as follows:
Phylum: Chordata
Sub Phylum: Vertebrates
Class: Pisces
Sub Grade: Teleostei
Order: pernoprophi
Sub Order: Perchoidae
Family: Chicildidae
Genus: Oreochromis
Species: Oreochromis niloticus

Morphology Tilapia Fish
Tilapia has a slender elongated body part and a relatively flat. Big side and rough, shape ctenoid, the lateral line to falter in the middle of the fish body. Color scales brownish gray (dark indigo) and white or red (red tilapia). Position is located at the mouth end of the mouth and the terminal. In the dorsal fin fingers are hard dorsal fin and vertical lines are rounded and reddish. (Suyanto, 1993).
Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results
Tilapia has a characteristic in the physical body ratio is 2: 1 between the length and height. 16-17 dorsal fins with sharp spines and 11-15 soft spines and the anal parts there are three spines and 8-11 fingers. Body colored black or gray with some black tape stripes that fade or vaguely visible when the adult fish. (Satyani, 2001).

To differentiate between males and females can be seen through the shape and genitalia that exist in the body of the fish. The males have a genital orifice elongated shape and prominent. Serves as a means spending sperm and urine. Fin color red, especially when ripe gonads. Female fish have sex two holes near the anus, shaped like a crescent moon and a function to release an egg. The second hole was in the back of the fallopian tubes and round and serves as a discharge of urine (Hasni 2008).
Tilapia fish is a freshwater fish species are usually consumed. Natural distribution of fish this is Africa and in Indonesian waters were first discovered by Mr. Mujair in Serang River estuary south coast of Blitar, East Java in 1939. Although still a mystery, how the fish was able to get to a remote estuary south of Blitar.

The scientific name is Oreochromis mossambicus, and known in English as the Mozambique tilapia, or sometimes incorrectly called "Java tilapia". Medium-sized fish, tilapia maximum total length achieved is about 40 cm. These fish began to breed at the age of about 3 months, and after that it can reproduce every 1 ½ months. Each time, dozens of the fertilized egg will 'incubated in the mother's mouth, which takes about a week to hatch. Until a few days later is still holding fish mouth young children, until these children weaned mother.

Previously, tilapia and tilapia known by the scientific name of Tilapia nilotica and Tilapia Mossambica. But since 1980, tilapia and tilapia name has been changed to Oreochromis Oreochromis nilotica and Mossambica. The new classification changes pioneered by several experts including Dr. Trewavas, Wohlfart, and Hulata.

Wohlfart and Hulata (1982) says that fish Cichlidae family consists of two main genera are distinguished by their reproductive behavior. The first genus of small-sized body with a fewer number of eggs and the genus that both have the nature to save the fertilized egg in its mouth. The first genus is a genus of small genus Tilapia and second storing eggs in its mouth is a genus Sarotherodon.

In a publication issued by the British Museum of Natural History, Dr. Trewavas divide fish from the family Cichlidae into 3 genera, among others:

Genus Tilapia
This genus spawn and laying their eggs on a substrate (stone, wood, and so on). Parent males and females take turns keeping the eggs and their children. In addition, the genus Tilapia issuing eggs in small amounts. Examples of species is T. Sepermanii, T. Rendali, and T. Zilli.

Genus Sarotherodon
Genus Sarotherodon spawning and incubating eggs in the mouth in the male parent or both parents dahkan. Examples of species is S. Malanothreon, and S. Galilaenus.

Genus Orechromis
At this genus, holding the female is incubating the eggs in the mouth and looking after her children. Examples of species is O. nilotica, O. aureus, O. Spilurus, O. Leucostica, O. Vulcani, and O. Nigra.

Based on these studies, tilapia and tilapia in Indonesia has the habit of spawning and incubating eggs in the mouth of the female parent. As a result, naming tilapia and tilapia in Indonesia has been changed into Oreochromis nilotica for tilapia and tilapia Oreochromis Mossambica to fish.
Body shape of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) extends laterally flattened, while the body color indigo is generally white-black and red that are known as "indigo black" and "red tilapia". Black indigo colored black body, the stomach to even brighter. 9-11 has a vertical line of bluish-green fruit. There are 6-12 on the tail fin that ends transverse reddish color, while the back-slash stripe. Red tilapia has a red body color, including fins, or red on the back and white reddish in the abdomen.

After successful interbreeding between the species in the genus Oreochromis and efforts to manipulate the color of indigo it now appears some strains of tilapia and color, such as red tilapia (nirah), tilapia red (mujarah), black tilapia, tilapia wild, indigo gift, indigo nirvana, and etc.
Indigo eyes stood out rather large with the edge of the bluish green. Location of the mouth of the terminal, the position of the pelvic fins pectoral fins thorocis, and the broken line (linea lateralis) were terrputus into two parts, lying lengthwise above the pectoral fins. Number of scales on the lateral line scales 34 types of fruit and ctenoid. Fingers fins consists of 17 fingers hard and 13 fingers soft on the dorsal fin, one of fingers and five fingers software on the pelvic fins, 15 fingers soft on the pectoral fins, 3 fingers hard and 10 fingers on the soft anal fin (anus), and a tail fin there are 8 fingers hard softened.

Forms of tilapia fish (Oreochromis Mossambica) like tilapia. Body color tilapia fish there are gray, brown, and black, depending on the environmental conditions of his life. Pectoral fins and pelvic fins reddish black, while the dorsal fin and tail fin reddish color on the edges. The hallmark of the tilapia fish is the yellowish color on the chin bottom, while the tilapia bright white color. Yellow on the bottom of the increasingly bright / sharp in mature male fish sex. Dorsal fin tilapia are 15-17 hard radius and 10-13 soft radius, the anal fin there are three fingers of hard and soft radii 9-10, the pectoral fins are 13 soft fingers, and no pelvic fins 1 of fingers soften and 5 soft radius. Nila has many varieties or races. Those varieties resulting from cross-breeding between species in the genus Oreochromis, mainly to produce superior tilapia.

Please read also about: catfish culture

And Aquaculture Fish Tilapia Hatchery process
Parent Selection of Fish tilapia
  • Seed production is able to produce in large quantities with high quality.
  • Highly responsive to a given food.
  • Resistant to pests, parasites and diseases.
  • Holding good size for spawning is 100 grams.
Female
  • There are 3 holes on urogenetial namely: anal, spending holes and hole egg urine.
  • End fin pale reddish color is not clear.
  • Belly whiter color.
  • Color white chin.
  • If the stomach does not secrete fluids stripped.
Male
  • At urogenetial tool there are 2 holes, namely: the anus and cum sperm hole urine hole.
  • End fin reddish color is bright and clear.
  • Color darker abdomen / blackish.
Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results
Tilapia fish breeding can be done in three ways, namely:

The system of the pond
In this system pond spawning / hatchery combined with the pond / childcare. After preparation of seeding media, scatter the male and female parent with a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 4 with the number density of 2 pairs / 10 square meters. harvesting done every 2 weeks.

Two pools system
In this system the process of spawning and nursery is done in a separate pool, with a large proportion of spawning pond with pond is 1: 2 or 1: 4. The basis of the pond should be lower than other pond bottom so that water flow is quite flowing from the spawning pond to pond. At the second door is mounted pool coarse sieve so that only the children of fish that can pass. The number and density of male and female parent are deployed together with the system of the pond.

System platform
In this system pond is divided into four parts, the first pond as a male and female parent meeting or spawning sites. The second pond where the mother which is sealed by a lattice bamboo with holes the size of the female parent body so that only the mother who may qualify for this second pool. The third pool is where the release of larvae and a fourth is a nursery. Media preparation and holding amount is released together with the first system.

Tilapia Hatchery
Tilapia fish spawning and hatching take place throughout the year in the spawning pond and does not require any special spawning environment. It needs to be done is the preparation of maintenance media such as drying, liming and fertilizing. The water level in the pond was maintained at approximately 50 cm.

To increase the level of Productivity and fertility, then given extra food with the following composition: 25% fish meal, copra meal and fine bran 10% to 65%. This ration composition used in the cultivation of tilapia fish commercially. Can also be given food in the form of pellets, which yield 20-30% protein with a dose of 2-3% of the population weight per day, given as much as 2 times / day ie morning and afternoon. Spawning occurs after the male parent will make a nest hole in the form of depressions in the bottom of the pool with a diameter of about 10-35 cm.

Once spawning is finished nesting, spawning process takes place immediately. After the fertilization process is complete, the eggs of spawning results immediately collected by the female parent in his mouth for incubated until hatching. At this time the female parent is inactive eat so that her body looks thin. The eggs will hatch after 3-5 days on the water temperature around 25-27 degrees C. After about 2 weeks after hatching, the mother of new releases his children, because it has been able to find their own food.

Seed maintenance Tilapia Fish
Nursery or child maintenance tilapia fish is done after the eggs hatch spawning results. This activity is carried out on the pond who are ready to accept juveniles where the pool is drained and cleaned in advance of wild fish. Swimming given chalk and nurtured accordingly. Similarly, the feeding of seeds adapted to the provisions. Number of stocking in the pond depends on the size of fish seed. Fish fry 1-3 cm size, number of stocking about 30-50 fish / square meter, the size of 3-5 cm stocking amount ranging from 5-10 individuals / square meter. While the kids fish size 2-5 5-8 cm stocking tail number / square meter. To seed the size of 5-8 cm, monoseks culture should be done, because at that size fish seed can already distinguish the sex male or female.

Step - Step In Raising Tilapia
Tilapia Aquaculture Site Selection
There are some things we have to consider in determining the location for the cultivation of tilapia fish:

  • Good soil for pool maintenance is a type of clay / loam, not pivot. These soils can hold a large mass of water and do not leak so that it can be made the pool walls.
  • The slope of the land is good for making the pond ranged from 3-5% to facilitate irrigation pond by gravity.
  • Tilapia fish can grow normally, if the location of the maintenance at an altitude between 150-1000 m above sea level. For the maintenance of water quality tilapia fish should be clean, not too muddy and polluted toxic chemicals, and oil / sewage plants.
  • Tilapia fish can thrive in ponds, paddy fields, and streams jetted. Swimming with irrigation system that flows very well for the growth and physical development of tilapia fish. Debit calm water for swimming water 8-15 liters / sec / ha, whereas for the enlargement jetted tub debit of 100 liter / min / m3.
  • Water acidity (pH) were well is between 7-8.
  • Good water temperature ranges between 20-25 degrees C.

Construction Swimming
In this step is similar to the way other fish farming depend on the land and farming needs. Generally undertaken extensive pool 500 - 1000 m2 Making Causeway pool should be sturdy and waterproof with a width up to 50 cm. The provision of income and expenditure of the water channel located on the opposite side. And in the given filter made of wire that has a small hole size so that the fish are not out of the pool, or the nets are put on line income and expenditure.
Into the water of the pool ranges from 70 cm - 150 cm. To prevent water from overflowing into the pool when it rains we can make a trench around or diagonal with a depth of between 20 -50 cm with with a width ranging from 50-200 cm.

The type of pool that is commonly used in the cultivation of tilapia fish, among others:
Aircraft maintenance pool / pond spawning. The pond serves as a spawning pool, the pool should be ground pool which covers 50-100 square meter and a density of progenitor pool only 2 fish / m2. The conditions are the spawning pool water temperature ranges between 20-22 degrees C; water depth of 40-60 cm; preferably sandy bottom of the pool.

Pool maintenance seed / pond
Wide pool of no more than 50-100 square meters. Pond water depth between 30-50 cm. The density should be 5-50 tail / square meter. Long maintenance in the pond / seedling between 3-4 weeks, when the fish fingerlings 3-5 cm in size.

Swimming enlargement
Swimming enlargement serves as a place to nurture and raise seed after of the pond. Sometimes this is necessary in the maintenance of some pools enlargement, namely:

  • Swimming enlargement serves to maintain the first phase after the fish seed of the pond. This pool should amount to between 2-4 pieces with a maximum area of ​​250-500 square meters / pool. Enlargement of the first phase is not advisable to use cement pond, because the seeds of this size requires a vast space. Once the seeds into small logs seed then entered the second phase of enlargement or directly sold to farmers.
  • Swimming enlargement phase II works to maintain large spindles seed. Swimming can be a pond or paddy soil. Floating cages can also be used with the mesh from 1.25 to 1.5 cm. Number of enlargement stocking phase II should be no more than 10 animals / square meter.
  • Enlargement of stage III serves to raise the seed. Required between 80-100 cm ground pool with an area of ​​500-2000 square meters.

Preparation Maintenance
Before the fish are released into the pond cultivation should be done in the following stages:
  • Drying pond until the subgrade be cracked for 4-7 days.
  • Giving calcium oxide at a dose of 25-50 g / m2. Basic fertilization in the form of organic fertilizer with a dose of 250-500 g / m2 and inorganic fertilizers like urea and NH4NO3 15 g / m2, TSP 10 g / m2,
  • Fertilizers used spread evenly in the bottom of the pool.
Spreading Seeds
To put the results of which reached the target quantity can be done in accordance with the stocking of extensive aquaculture pond itself with a stocking density of 5-10 individuals / m2 and the size of the seed used is 8-12 cm size or weight of ± 15-20 g / head.
Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results
Maintenance Enlargement Fish Tilapia
Maintenance of enlargement can be done in polyculture or monoculture.
polyculture
  • 50% tilapia fish, fish tawes 20%, and 30% mas, or
  • tilapia fish 50%, 20% carp and carp 30%.

Monoculture
Maintenance of these systems is the best maintenance compared to polyculture and in this system the separation between male and female parent.
Tilapia fish rearing can also be done in net, in the form of Hapa measuring 1 x 2 m to 2 x 3 m with a depth of 75-100 cm. Hapa size can be adjusted to the depth of the pool. Besides rice was diberokan can be used also for spawning and raising tilapia fish seed. Prior to use rice fields deepened in advance in order to accommodate the water depth of 50-60 cm, made trench width 1-1.5 m with a depth of 60-75 cm.

Feeding
Productivity levels and fertility If the pool is on the wane, it can be given extra food with the following composition: 25% fish meal, copra meal and fine bran 10% to 65%. The composition of the ration is used in fish tilapia farming commercially. Can also be given food in the form of pellets, which yield 20-30% protein with a dose of 2-3% of the population weight per day, given twice a day ie morning and afternoon.

Besides, it is also the condition of the feed in these waters according to the dose or the existing provisions. That is in addition to the feed of the basic media also need to be given additional food in the form of pellets or crumbs crushed with a heavy dose of 10% of the population per day. Administration 2-3 times / day.

Maintenance pool / Pond
In terms of maintenance of tilapia fish that should not be overlooked is water conditions in order to maintain water quality is quite stable and clean and not contaminated / poisoned by toxic substances.

Maintenance
Maintenance of tilapia fish is very easy. Maintenance can be carried out in the fields or on the lake, which is important enough available acid, so often found in tandem tilapia fish breath of fresh air.
  • For the density of maintenance, each 1.5 m could contain more than 20 fish tilapia fish 8 to 10 centimeters long.
  • For feeding, we can sprinkle concentrate 521 or 534, or can create their own material plus anchovies milled rice bran and corn sides.
  • As a supplementary food kale leaves, chopped spinach, or may also dead chickens or ducks.
Pests and Diseases of Fish Tilapia
Pests Fish Tilapia
Bebeasan (Notonecta)
Dangerous for seed because of the sting.
Control: pour kerosene into the water 500 cc / 100 square meters.

Ucrit (larvae cybister)
Clamping body of the fish with fangs to tear.
Control: difficult to eradicate; Avoid organic materials accumulate around the pool.

Frog
Eat the eggs of fish. Control: often throw eggs float; catch and throw him alive.

Snake
Attacking seeds and small fish. Control: do arrest; pool fencing.

Otter
Eating fish at night. Control: trap pairs.

Bird
Which takes a light-colored seeds such as red, yellow.
Control: given the difficult barrier of bamboo in order to pounce; given tassel or rope barrier.

Disease Tilapia Fish:
In general things are done in order to prevent diseases and pests in tilapia fish farming:
  • Drying bottom of the pool on a regular basis after each harvest.
  • Maintenance of fish that are completely free of the disease.
  • Avoid excessive stocking of fish exceeds the capacity.
  • The ideal water intake system is parallel, each pool were given a water intake door.
  • feeding enough, both quality and quantity.
  • handling during harvest or removal of seeds should be done carefully and correctly.
  • Animals such as birds, snails, fish thousand (lebistus reticulatus Peters) as a carrier of the disease should not be allowed into the pool area.
Tilapia Fish Harvest.
Tilapia fish harvesting can be done by: total harvest and harvest most.

Partial or selective harvesting crops
Selective harvesting is done without draining the pond, fish will be harvested chosen a certain size (for harvesting the seed). The size of the seeds to be harvested (age 1-1.5 months) depending on consumer demand, generally classified for size: 1-3 cm; 3-5 cm and 5-8 cm.
Harvesting is done by using waring on which had been sprinkled with bait (bran). Fish that are not selected (usually injured by nets), before being returned to the pool should be separated and given medication by 0.5-1.0 ppm malachite green solution for 1 hour.

Total harvest
Generally, the total harvest is done to catch / harvest fish from enlargement. Generally harvested tilapia fish aged between 5 months and weighing between 30-45 g / fish. Total harvest is done by drying the pond, to a height of 10-20 cm of water stay.
Swath harvesting / plot arrests were made an area of ​​1 sq m at the front door of expenditure (monnik), making it easier in fishing. Harvesting is done early in the day when things do not heat by using waring or scoopnet smooth. Perform harvesting as soon as possible and be careful to avoid injuries fish.

Post Harvest Aquaculture Tilapia Fish
Tilapia fish post-harvest handling can be done by handling live fish and fresh fish.

The handling of live fish
Sometimes the consumption of fish will be more expensive when sold alive. Things to note that these fish reach the consumer alive, fresh and healthy, among others:
  • In the transport of water use a low temperature of about 20 derajatC.
  • Transport time should be in the morning or afternoon.
  • The number density of fish in the transportation equipment is not too dense.
Handling fresh fish
Fresh fish carp is a product that is rapidly descending quality. Things to consider to maintain freshness, among others:
  • Arrests must be done carefully so the fish are not injured.
  • Before packed, the fish must be washed so clean and mucus.
  • Container carrier should be clean and covered. For the transport of short distance (2 hours drive), can be used baskets covered with banana leaves / plastic. For long-distance transport of used boxes and zinc or fiberglass. The maximum box capacity 50 kg with a maximum height of 50 cm box.
  • The fish is placed in a container which was given ice with a temperature of 6-7 degrees C.
Use ice in the form of small pieces (es detached) with a ratio of the amount of ice and fish = 1: 1. Bottom of the box covered with ice as thick as 4-5 cm. Then the fish are arranged on top of this ice layer 5-10 cm thick, then followed by a layer of ice again and so on. Between the walls of the box is a fish with ice, as well as between fish with lid.

While the things that need to be considered in the treatment of seed are as follows:
  • Seed should be selected healthy fish that is free of disease, parasites and not disabled. After that, a new fish seed is inserted into a plastic bag (closed system) or cage (open systems).
  • The transport medium water used must be clean, healthy, free of pests and diseases and other organic materials. For example it can be used well water that has been aerated overnight.
  • Before being transported fish seed should be brought up during the first few days.
  • Use a bath containing the enlargement in the form of clean water, and with good aeration. Places enlargement can be made with a size of 1 x 1 m or 2 m x 0.5 m. By that measure, like enlargement can accommodate carp seed number 5000-6000 tails with a size of 3-5 cm. The number of seeds in the enlargement must be adapted to the size of the seed.
Based long / distance delivery, the seed transport system is divided into two parts, namely:
a. Open systems
Performed for transporting the seeds in close quarters or do not require a long time. Conveyance in the form of cages. Each cage can be filled 15 liters of clean water and to transport about 5,000 fry 3-5 cm size.

b. Closed system
Performed for the transport seeds long distances that take more than 4-5 hours, using a plastic bag. The volume of the transport medium consisting of 5 liters of clean water are given buffer Na2 (hpo) 4.1H2O as much as 9 grams. Way packaging fish seeds are transported with plastic bags:
  • enter the clean water into a plastic bag and then seeds.
  • remove the air by pressing the plastic bag to the surface of the water.
  • The stream of oxygen from a tube flowed into plastic bags as much as 2/3 of the overall volume of the cavity (water: oxygen = 1: 1).
  • a plastic bag and then tied.
  • The plastic bag is inserted into the dos with longitudinal position or put to sleep. Dos measuring 0.50 m long, 0.35 m wide and 0.50 m high can be filled with 2 pieces of plastic bags.
Some things to note after the seeds reached the destination is as follows:
  • Prepare a solution of tetracycline 25 ppm in bucket (1 capsule tertasiklin in 10 liters of water).
  • Open the plastic bag, add water coming from the local pond bit by bit in order to change the temperature of the water in a plastic bag occurs slowly.
  • Move the fish seed into the bucket containing tetracycline solution for 1-2 minutes.
  • Put the fish into a bath seed enlargement. In the tub seed enlargement fish fed sufficiently. In addition, treatment with tetracycline 25 ppm for 3 days in a row.
  • After 1 week of quarantine, seed stocking fish in pond aquaculture.
Similarly, a brief review of Step - step to Look For In Raising Tilapia For Abundant Results , hopefully what has been delivered can be useful, and do not forget to share with others.
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Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper

A BRIEF HISTORY
Catfish is a species of freshwater fish consumption, long-bodied white with silver-colored backs bluish. Catfish known as commodity bright prospect, because it has a high selling price. This is why catfish attention and demand by employers to cultivate catfish. This fish is quite responsive to supplemental feeding. At catfish culture, within six months of catfish can reach a length of 35-40 cm. As Pangasidae family, these fish do not require water flowing to "raise" the body. In waters do not flow with low oxygen content had already qualified for raising these fish.
Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper
Long-bodied catfish to the size of the local fresh fish, such as silver white, bluish backs. Catfish relatively small head, mouth situated at the tip of the head a little at the bottom (a hallmark of class catfish). In the corner of his mouth there are two pairs of short whiskers that serves as a feeler.

Catfish classification is as follows:
Order: Ostarioplaysi.
Suborder: Siluriodea.
Family: Pangasidae.
Genus: Pangasius.
Species: Pangasius pangasius Ham. Buch.

Morphology Catfish
Catfish has an elongated body with a white silvery bluish backs. Body length can reach 120 cm, a size large enough for the size of the domestic freshwater fish. Catfish relatively small head with a mouth situated at the tip of the head a little in the bottom it is the characteristic class of catfish. at the corner of his mouth there are two pairs of short whiskers that serves as a feeler.

Dorsal fin has a radius which turns into a hard serrated catfish and large on the back. Meanwhile, the radius of the soft dorsal fin there are six or seven. At the back there are small fatty fin all. The forked tail fin shape and a symmetrical shape. Catfish do not have scales. Anus fin length, consisting of 30-33 soft radii, while the belly fin has six fingers hard turn into a weapon in natural conditions in the weapon is useful to keep it from predators.

Catfish for health benefits
Catfish for health benefits characterized by the fat content is lower than other types of fish, especially two essential fatty acids DHA is approximately 4.74% and the EPA is approximately 0.31%. Both types of omega-3 fatty acids are usually produced from species of fish that live in cold water fish like salmon, tuna, and sardines. The total fat content in meat catfish is of 2.55% to 3.42%, where the unsaturated fatty acids is above 50%. Folic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is most abundant in the flesh of catfish that is equal to 8.43%.

The content of catfish
Based on the results of the research, the nutrient content in catfish in the form of unsaturated fat (USFA by 50%) is very good to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease. Unsaturated fats are also useful for lowering the amount of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood contained so as to prevent and reduce coronary heart disease.
If in view of the low levels of cholesterol contained in meat catfish (21-39 mg / 100 g), then the benefits of catfish is very good for those of you who are on a diet program because it can reduce the daily intake of cholesterol in your diet.

Biological properties of catfish
Catfish are nocturnal (activities carried out at night) as well as other generally catfish. Additionally, catfish like to hide in the clefts of the riverside habitat for life. What distinguishes catfish with catfish in general: the nature of catfish are omnivorous or group of fish-eating everything. In nature, fish meal include other small fish, worms, detritus, insects, seeds. Small shrimps, and mollusks.

Catfish including basic fish, it can be seen from the shape of his mouth slightly down it. Life habitat in rivers and estuaries spread in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. Catfish meat is very tasty and delicious so well-known and highly favored by the people. If the nature of fish congregate at the edges of the big river at the end of the rainy season or about April to May. Sener tool used is a kind of mesh in the stretcher with a pair of bamboo. Its operating by pushing the net toward the front. The time of his arrest before dawn because at that time the children of catfish usually swim in groups and occasionally come to the surface to breathe oxygen from the air directly.

Relatives Catfish
No close relatives catfish Indonesia generally have characteristics Pangasidae family in general, which is slightly flattened body shape, not scaly or smooth scales once. A small mouth with 2-4 pairs of antennae feelers. There are thorns as a weapon on the dorsal fin and the fins chest. Anus fin length starting from the back of the rectum up to the base of the tail fin. It is said that relatives Patin in Indonesia there are quite a lot, including Pangasius polyuranodo (fish juaro), Pangasius macronema (fish rios, fish riu, fish presumptuous), Pangasius micronemus (Wakal, riuscaring), Pangasius nasutus (pedado), Pangasius nieuwenhuisii (mace ). Below is a summary description of the relatives of catfish as follows:

Pangasius polyuranodo
This fish is also known as fish juaro. Pearly white body with a blackish back. High body shape with dorsal fin has seven soft fingers and two fingers hard one between becoming a very powerful weapon that is very strong. Small fatty fin on his back once, while the symmetrical shape of the tail fin. Anus fin long and has 35-40 soft finger-jar. Pelvic fin has six fingers soft, while the pectoral fin has 12-13 soft radii and a radius of powerful hardware that also serves as a shaft.

Near the nostrils are tentacle feeler of the upper jaw which originate in the corners of the mouth and ends up at the base of the pectoral fins. Barbels on the lower jaw touch short. The body length of up to 50 cm, nose in the rivers. Spread in Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Thailand.

Pangasius macronema
These fish have antennae that are longer than the head. Veromine gear separated, 37-45 comb filter are thin on the first gill arch. The lines at the hands of the body and the belly clearly separated at the beginning of the pectoral fins. This fish deployment includes Java, Borneo, and Indochina.

Pangasius micronemus
This fish has a separate veromine teeth or met in one point, his eyes very large (approximately one-quarter the length of the head), hexagon-shaped snout, lower jaw lobe elongated rather than rounded, bony arm at the base of the pectoral fins are very short. Tentacle extending to the periphery of the upper jaw behind the eye or beyond it. There are 13-16 comb filter on the first gill arch. This fish is found in the Sunda Islands and Thailand.

Pangasius nasutus
This fish snout sharp pointy shape and very striking. Veromine wide set of teeth three times its length. His eyes are very small (six times shorter than the length of the head) and is located above the corners of the mouth. The number of fingers anal fins are relatively few. When the mouth is closed, the teeth of the upper jaw visible all. The spread of these fish in Sumatra, Borneo and Malaysia.

Pangasius nieuwenhuisii
Veromine and palatine teeth or in the wide field. A bony protrusion at the base of the pectoral fin arm extends up to two-thirds or three-quarters of the distance from the tip of the pectoral fins. Tapered snout. The spread of these fish in east borneo.

Aquaculture Catfish
Enlargement catfish in a special pond for catfish enlargement enlargement usually is done after the fish at first maintained in the pond. But there are also people who directly maintain it in an enlargement without having to go through the pond first.

maintenance in the pond is done for catfish that size is still very small. seed catfish sold in the market there are still small so it should be maintained in the nursery in advance but when the seed size is already size is large enough, the nursery is not in need again means that in purchasing seeds are directly kept in an enlargement.

Catfish do not always choose the particular type of pool. This fish can be maintained and can still grow well in various types of pools. This type of pool that can be used for catfish enlargement, namely:

  • Swimming Irrigation.
  • Swimming rainfed.
  • Non Tidal marsh pond.
  • Swimming tarp.

Swimming Irrigation
As the name implies, an irrigation obtain water from irrigation networks. the use of irrigation pond for catfish enlargement is the recommended because the water in the pool is available all the time and far from the concerns the possibility of water shortages.
Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper
In the manufacture of an extensive irrigation pond determination more freely so that the pool can be made to be larger. Before it was decided to build a pool of soil types should also be in the know because this type of soil will directly affect the level of fertility of pool water.

Good soil types in addition to being a source of nutrients also determine the physical and chemical properties of water pool. In addition soil texture should also be considered for the level of seepage. Therefore, the pool is made on the textured clay soil because it is waterproof (to have a relatively small level of seepage).

Sources of water coming into the pond should also be in the know. Source of water for irrigation is groundwater that flows on the lower ground flow through the river. Furthermore, water is piped away from the river through irrigation streams. in the water travels through the various types of soil. if through soil containing lime water is alkaline (base). Instead of water through the swamp to be acidic.

Water passing through the area of ​​agriculture and settlement contains a lot of organic matter and fertility. while water through industrial and mining areas usually contain substances pollution therefore these factors must be taken into consideration.

Swimming Rainfed
This is a rain-fed swimming pool that only gets water from the rain. Swimming rainfed made when all around us is not available source of irrigation water or groundwater sources. So the source of water to fill the pool water comes from rain water entirely. because only rely on rain water, the precipitation will determine the amount or volume or pool water.
Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper

Catfish expect the pool to a certain depth (1 - 1.5 m), therefore when using rain-fed pond for catfish enlargement it should make sure first that there is enough water to measure the depth of the pond throughout the maintenance period. That is why the development of rain-fed pond can not be done in any place.

The location used to be researched carefully through precipitation, evaporation of soil texture, and construction of the pool area has a rainfall of over 1,500 mm per year can be used to build rainfed for enlargement catfish more safe longer periods of wet months in the area reaches 7-9 months. while the evaporation of water per day is about 5 mm. the size of rain-fed pond can not be for an irrigation but must be smaller than that.

Non Tidal Swamp pool
Although unpopular, enlargement catfish in swamps, especially in non-tidal marsh has been on trial in southern Sumatra inim kartamulia estuary catfish growth results are quite good, especially on a tidal marsh pond that has long built.

Generally bog pond is highly acidic (low pH less than 4). The nature of the soil and the pool water was not good enough acid to enlargement catfish. But this can be overcome by engineering reclamation (leaching). how the swamp pond water flowed to speed up the process of releasing new material and subsequent acid in the waste waters to more broadly.

Other efforts to raise the pH of the non-tidal marsh pond is with calcification. usually chalk effect would be very helpful if the first pond in reclaimed before swimming in limestone. Calcification is done on the bottom of the pond and further to maintain the stability of the water may be added lime with a lower dose.

Swimming Sheeting
Formerly fish farmers know only ground pools, swimming ponds and fish farming cages as a container. Along with the development of agricultural technology and the availability of materials, many farmers who improvise implement pilot fish in the pond maintenance alternatives. One of the more trendy is a pool tarp. Fish belonging to this Pangasidae not require running water for self-aggrandizement. Even catfish are able to grow normally in the low oxygen waters.
Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper

But keep in mind, especially at the seed stage (larvae) is very sensitive to weather changes. Many reported the occurrence of mass mortality due to changes in water temperature and the air suddenly. This condition occurs when the weather anomaly takes place, such as long dry or rainy season different from the usual. But behind it there is one thing that benefit from this catfish. This fish is very tolerant of water pH.

Here is a step - Steps That Must do in Aquaculture Catfish

Prepare pool
When preparing a pool that will be made for media cultivation, as already explained above the pool must be dried prior to the bottom of the pool cracked before use sprinkle compost on the surface of the pond in order to make seed phytoplankton later. After the manure in composting also sprinkle sprinkle lime and fertilizer urea fertilizers which aims to stabilize the acidity of water. Construction of the pool can be adjusted to the needs of eg 5 M x 10 M with a depth of 2-3 M. if we do not have enough land that we can make smaller fishponds which suggest that catfish into the pond for a fish like into the water.

Charging Water
Water filling can be done after all of the above conditions are met. fill the pond with water about 50-100 CM, with the aim to take into easily catfish undergo breathe oxygen activity if the water is too deep, the fish would be difficult to do so. Then let the pond with water such that the position of up to 2 weeks old until the water is greenish. because in the pond, there are many natural foods when water is greenish.

Spreading Seeds
At the time of seeding there are things that need to be noticed. Before the seeds scatter the fish in the pond thing we do is:

  • Prepare Ember.
  • Put water we draw from the pool of candidates cultivation.
  • Put seed catfish in the bucket for about 30 minutes in order to make adjustments to the habitat of fish later so as not to stress and lead to death.
  • After That input into the pond with fish seed stocking density of 5 mice / 1 M square. that experienced rapid growth rate.

Feeding
Catfish classified voracious fish eat no matter how much we love to eat then be discharged but such measures are not effective. enough with feeding frequency during the morning and evening to the morning levels at 06.00 pm during the day at 13:00 pm and 20:00 pm Night at the amount of 30% mornings, 30% during the day, 40% evenings. with a nutrient content of 25% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 35% fat. feed can be given in the form of additional feed fish pellets and artificial feed.

Care
When the 40-day-old fish we have to make the selection / sorting the fish sorter tool. we can. purchased from the store fish farming equipment. with the aim to create as large fish and in same time period.

Harvest
Harvest catfish can be done after 5 months of cultivation. to get the fish in accordance with the market we can adjust the length of cultivation period. and harvests are suggested for the removal of all fish in the pond and transferred into a pool tarp to avoid stress and death.

Also read about: the cultivation of eels

Similarly, a brief explanation of Knowing Catfish Cultivation Techniques With Proper, hopefully what is presented can be useful to readers. And good luck for the cultivation of catfish.
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