Carp Fish (Osphronemus gouramy, Lacepede) is a freshwater fish Anabantidae family. This fish has a flat body shape and width. In fish grown, wide-body almost twice the length of the head or ¾ times the body length. Head shape carp are still young taper to the front, and after the old becomes low and flat. The color of her body, especially on the back is red-brown, while the belly yellowish or silvery. A pair of pelvic fins of carp will change into a pair of long threads which serves as a feeler. The fins are hard to stick to his back while the lines intersect the ribs at the bottom of the dorsal fin. The maximum body length of 65 cm.
Carp is a freshwater fish that nowadays more and more cultivated. This is because carp has several advantages compared to the type of other freshwater fish, such as having a high tolerance level to the environment, the taste of meat typical (good), the level of the high life, so it can be cultivated in a high density in various conditions waters there. Carp is one commodity that has been developed by farmers, this is because the market demand is quite high.
This fish is one type of fish consumption is well known and much in demand in Indonesia. This is because carp has the advantages of meat taste delicious, easy maintenance, and prices are relatively stable. This fish has long been known and have been widely cultivated. However, attempts are being made to support the direction of intensive cultivation has not been widely implemented.
Along with the times and increasing population growth coupled with the increasing need for animal protein by people every year hence, the need for increased production of carp, the need for expansion of the cultivation of carp with increased production of fish in bulk, both in quantity and quality, so can be used as a new commodity to the other fish commonly marketed.
In the various Regions, carp are known by various names, including, Gurameh (Java), carp (Sundanese, Betawi), if, when, Alui (Sumatra). In English, it is called giant gourami gouramy.
According to Bleeker were later refined by Sunier, Weber and de Beaufort, carp classification as follows:
Species: Osphronemus gouramy Lac.
Morphology Fish Carp
These fish have a lateral line single, complete and uninterrupted, scaly stenoid and has teeth on the lower jaw. Tail fin rounded. The radius of the first weak pelvic fins are long threads which serves as a feeler. Height 2.0 s / d 2.1 times of standard length. At the young fish are colored vertical stripes of black numbered 8 to 10 pieces, and the area of the tail are black dot round (Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Sukabumi, 2002).
Carp also has a flattened shape typical physical body, rather long and wide. The bodies covered with scales strong with a rather rough edge. A small mouth, is located just below the sloping not muzzle end. Seen protruding lower lip than the upper lip slightly. The tip of the mouth can be flushed out so that it looks forward.
Adult carp appearance different from the young. Differences can be observed based on body size, color, shape of the head and forehead. Color and behavior of young carp is much more interesting than adult carp (Sitanggang and Sarwono, 2001). While the young fish are eight vertical lines. Dark spots with yellow or silvery colored edges found on the body above the anal fin and on the base of the pectoral fins are black spots (Susanto, 2001).
Carp classified in order Labirynthici who have additional breathing apparatus called the labyrinth, which folds the respiratory epithelium which is derived from the first gill sheet, so that the fish can take oxygen directly from the air. The presence of this additional breathing apparatus allows carp can live in waters of low oxygen levels (Department of Agriculture, 1999).
Type - the type of Carp Fish
The types of carp that have been long known only two types, namely carp Soang (goose) and carp japanese (Japan). However, there are currently several new strains of carp. There are allegations that the new strain is a strain of carp offspring or cross-breeding of carp japanese and carp Soang are adjusted in each region.
Soang carp (Geese)
Designation carp carp Soang given on this type because it has two fairly prominent forehead both male and female. While the horns of the forehead is not visible on the female carp from other carp species. Carp fish male body is long and slender with chin bulge more visible than Soang female carp. Carp Soang including 2 types of carp that the suspect originally from Indonesia. Soang carp species, are found in the area ciamis, tasikmalaya and the surrounding area in western Java.
Superior to the carp Soang seen faster growth compared with the other two types of carp. Within one year since the form of eggs, heavy carp geese reach 700 gr / tail. It caused more voracious carp species Soang in consuming feed and have a movement that is more agile when responding feed.
Soang carp body shape slightly elongated and flattened to the high side. The length of the body reaches maximum height 65 cm 2-21 times higher in carp generally, and has a weight of 8 kg. On the body there Soang carp lateral line single line clearly visible. Slightly rounded body scales are large, and brown with black spots at the base of the pectoral fins. Soang small carp have reddish scales, especially on the tail and looks a vertical line as much as 5-12 pieces and will disappear when it starts up.
Productivity Soang carp species is higher compared with other types of carp, carp Soang usually can produce seeds begin 3-5 years. The number of eggs that produced even more at around 5000 to 7000 grains per head.
Japanese carp (Japan)
Japanese carp varieties (Japan) has also been long known in Indonesia. Carp has a shorter body size compared carp geese. The body length is about 45 CM japanese carp with a body weight of about 3-4 kg. When small, japanese carp bluish body and turned into a black or dark somewhat when it starts up. Carp scales is also smaller than carp goose. Japanese carp egg production range from 2000-3000 grains / head.
Carp cotton has a silvery white body color like cotton with a rather large and coarse scales. Adult carp body weight cotton reached 1.5 kg per head. Within one year of this carp weight of 1,000 g / tail starting from the eggs hatch. Fecundity eggs are produced in a single spawn about 3,000 grains per head. Carp this type typically encountered in many areas magelang - central Java.
Body colored carp hybrid bit to victimization, whereas plain white head. his head is not so prominent forehead and a rather large size scales. despite its rapid growth, the production of hybrid carp are not so much, which is about 2,000 -3 000 eggs per fish in a spawning. Hybrid varieties of carp species can be encountered in areas of western Java.
Paris carp body colored bright red base. At the head of this paris carp are white, while the body are black spots. Paris carp has a maximum weight of 1.5 kg per head. Once the carp spawn in paris able to produce eggs around 5000 to 6000 grains per head.
Bluesafir carp body has a bright pink color. Body weight per fish carp carp bluesafir heavier than paris is about 2 kg. Female parent bluesafir carp have the ability to spawn with the fecundity of 3,000 eggs per kg weight of the mother.
Carp stone has a rather black body color and more rugged scales. This type of carp are very rarely encountered because growth is very slow and farmers prefer this type of carp fish other than carp stone.
Carp porcelain has a smaller head size of his body. His body was bright pink, while the lower part of his body slightly whitish color. The ability of the porcelain carp spawn more stout because it can produce about 10,000 eggs grains only with the parent body weight of about 1.5 kg to 2 kg per fish.
Based on the types of carp that are currently developed, the type of carp that have superior to the number of seeds produced are carp Soang (goose), bluesafir carp, carp paris. This caused the number terlur that produced the three types of carp reached 5,000 grains. But in terms of the growth of the body, mongrel carp faster growing and have immune system stronger.
Complete Guide In Carp Fish Farming
Carp Fish hatcheries
Parent that is used should reach the age of 3 years.
To distinguish between male and female parent can be seen from the following characteristics:
Basic female fish have pectoral fins dark or blackish color, the color of the female fish chin whitish or slightly brown, if placed on the floor, the female fish did not show any reaction. Should have been aged 3 to 7 years.
The males have the fin base light colored or whitish, have a yellow chin, thicker than the females and panhandle. Male parent when placed on the floor or the ground will show the reaction by raising the base of the tail fin upwards.
Aside from knowing the differences in male and female parent, should also be known for the success of this carp hatchery. Parent has been aged 3 to 7 years. In contrast to the parent fish ponds, carp stem this growing age of the eggs will issue more and more, will be rounded belly and relatively long with bright body colors. The scales are not disabled earned / lost and are still in a state of neatly arranged.
The mother who is old enough and mature sex is characterized by belly will swell to the back or near the anus. In the anal canal will appear reddish white. And if we try to feel flabby belly would porch.
Water intake is done early in the morning, so that the pond has been ahead of the 10:00 half filled with water. The parents who have passed the selection included in the pool carefully and lovingly. Comparison between the number of male and female parent usual 1: 1 - 14. With the hope of at least the male parent can marry two breeding females in one pull. Once released into the spawning pond is usually the male parent is not automatically instantly make nests, but first take a walk, swim to it here and know the area. After 15 days of release, the male parent is usually directly preoccupied by activities make nests.
The center line of the nest is usually less than 30 cm, which is usually done by the male parent for a week (7 days). Once the nest is completed, the male parent quickly find and woo the female parent to come together to spawn in the nest. The female parent will squirt their eggs into the nest through a small nest hole, then males will spray his sperm, which eventually happened fertilization in the palace these fibers. Unlike carp nurseries are only a few hours, spawning carp usually lasts long enough. The male parent in charge of guarding the nest for spawning takes place. After spawning is completed, usually turn to the female parent in charge of maintaining the offspring, by first closing the nest hole with fibers or dry grass.
With his instinct as a good parent, usually the mother is keeping her son did not forget to wag the tail fin flipper especially towards the nest. The female parent fin movements will increase the dissolved oxygen content in water. Water with sufficient oxygen content will help incubate the eggs in the nest. For as is known, the eggs also need oxygen in the process becoming the seed fish. With affection while maintaining descendants female parent, male parent will return construct the nest and the female parent lure others to continue their offspring. From the top of the pool we can know the parents who have been spawned without going down to the pond to see the fishy smell, and the visible presence of oil layer just above the spawning nests.
Hatching eggs can be done at the aquarium or plastic buckets. How to remove the eggs from the nest to the aquarium done carefully not too rough to avoid the egg does not break. Nest materials of fibers that are 5 cm below the water surface and has been sealed, removed by means inserted into the bucket of a bucket 3/4 section. Nest facing up and drowned then slowly pushes the cover is opened, then the eggs will come out and float on the surface of the water. Further egg removed by using a small plate to be moved to the aquarium or tub filled bucket of clean water that has been deposited. Replacement of water conducted regularly so that the eggs hatch perfectly and eggs that did not hatch immediately issued. The eggs will hatch within 30 ~ 36 hours.
During the 5 days the seeds do not need extra food, because they suck the yolk (yolk sack). After the expiry of that seeds need food to be supplied from outside. Therefore, if it still has not spread in the pond should be fed infusoria. If you want to seed sown in the pool, the pool must be drained and fertilized with manure 1 kg / m2.
Then spray / pour bottom of the pool with a solution Migro Pond (10 ml Migro Pond: water 1 liter) evenly with a dose of 2 liters per hectare (20 ml Migro Pond / 100 m2). Let stand for 5-7 days.
Then enter the water slowly, give back Migro Pond with a dose of 0.02 ppm (2 liters per hectare).
Seed sown, when the pool water has turned into greenish.
Carp seed age of 7 days can be marketed to the breeders seed sales system so that the frequency hatchery nests can be improved.
After the carp seed seeds you get, the next step in the way of cultivation of carp is preparing for an enlargement of the media as a seed carp you.
Carp cultivation way you can do in the pool that you create by stirring the ground and using the media to create a pool tarp. Advantages of ground pool is the growth of plankton - natural plankton that can be used as natural food for your carp fingerlings. While the advantage of the pool which is made of tarp is in terms of the efficiency of expenditure in relation to making carp pond.
How to aquaculture carp with media ground pool you can do by digging the soil to a depth of approximately 1 meter and then let stand for 1 week excavation to reduce the toxicity of existing soil. After that fill the land with a pond of stagnant water and leave for 1 week so that the plankton begin to proliferate before seed carp inserted.
Using tarpaulin media is a way of cultivation of carp others. Assemble tarpaulin forming a rectangular pool with a wood frame and bamboo crutch. Once the tarp is assembled to resemble a pool, fill it with water and let stand for 1 week to neutralize tarpaulins of chemicals and stimulate the growth of plankton as the first meal of carp seed.
How to cultivation of carp using tarpaulin media help facilitate you in replacement of water and cleaning the pool. The pool water mixed with dirt carp also have to be replaced regularly to maintain the cleanliness and health of carp pond itself.
Ways Spreading Seeds
The next stage in the cultivation of carp way after the pool is ready to sow the seeds of carp seed into the pond. But before carp incorporated into new habitats necessary to adapt that carp do not stress that can affect mortality in carp.
As for how to adapt is putting the carp carp fish seed is still in the sealed plastic into an already filled with water. Allow a moment until you see moisture on the plastic wall, which means the water temperature in the plastics is the same as the temperature of the pool water.
Afterwards, the plastic slowly open and let the seeds carp out by itself. Do it on all your carp fingerlings.
The next step in the way of cultivation of carp are feeding. When carp in the form of seeds are animal foods including water fleas, silk worms and zooplankton similar microbial food. It was only after the carp adulthood, they are herbivores are plant eaters. Feed given a different course when carp is still a seedling.
Efforts to find a replacement leaves once favored carp is the key to raising carp body, which is considered quite effective today by providing extra food has a high protein content. On the Job Training activities have 3 types of food additives, ie pellets, snail, and insects (crickets)
Pellet is a supplementary food for the carp are already known. Forming material pellet is nothing but a mixture of various foodstuffs such as fish meal, blood meal, meat meal, leaf flour, bran flour, and so forth. Among the materials are high in protein mixed with foods low in a certain ratio, to obtain a protein content as desired. And the form of pellets as the grains of chalk but smaller.
Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) Is one of the important pests in paddy rice cultivation. For animals like aquatic habitats, life and movement (mobility) golden snail is strongly influenced by the state of water in the habitat. With the availability of the golden snail in significant amounts in nature, especially in the area of rice fields, the golden snail can be used as a feed supplement for fish other than just act as a pest of rice
Insects as food additives carp can also exploit the potential of insects that like to wander at night. In fact, although carp including fish herbivores (plant eaters), they do not refuse when a when (accidentally) there are insects that fall into the pool. For and because of this, we can use a lot of insects around us as food carp an inexpensive, but high in protein content.
The way to be successful cultivation of carp can not be separated from the cleanliness of the pool. The pool water mixed with dirt from thousands of carp certainly not healthy for the development of fish if left were not replaced.
Do the cleaning and replacement of pool water regularly every single week. Water suction hose to approximately 50% of the pool water discharge. After that change the pool water with fresh water to a height as before. Carp cultivation this way so that the health of the fish is maintained. Given the good sanitation is indispensable for growth.
Pests and Diseases Carp
Pests and diseases in the cultivation of carp often cause failures and huge losses. The few things that cause diseases such as pond fertility effects of fertilization, food, high fish densities and poor water quality (Kabata, 1985).
Pests are animals that are larger in size and capable of causing disturbance to the fish. Some carp main predators of pests are often found in the cultivation of carp are snakes, eels, frogs, and fish-eating birds. Judging from the predatory types of water according to Heinz and Kline (1973), the main enemy of carp divided into wild predatory fish and several species of fish-keeping. To avoid the carp from fish predators, the water intake pipe mounted filter fish so pests do not enter into the pool.
Types of diseases that often interfere in the cultivation of carp is white spot disease (White spots) caused by protozoa species Ichthyopthirius multifilis that attack the seed and stem carp. This protozoan parasite becomes difficult to eradicate because its presence is often covered by mucus impenetrable by drug solution (Kabata, 1985). They attacked the fish under the mucous membrane of fish which is the main stronghold for the fish (Kabata, 1985).
In addition, the type of disease that often attacks the stem carp is Argulus indicus. This parasitic crustacean relatively low rate of life as ectoparasites. According Radiopoetro (1983), Argulus indicus attached to the fins or scales on the stem of carp.
The last stage of carp farming is harvesting. Usually carp you can already harvest approximately 4 to 6 months from seed carp was added to the pool. But it depends on the needs of the market. If the market demand is more like carp young and not too big, of course, within 4 months you've been able to harvest the carp.
Asmawi, S. 1983. Maintenance Fish in Cage. Gramedia, Jakarta.
Rusdi, T. 1988. Cultivation carp. Simplex, Jakarta. 73 pp.
Agriculture department. 1986. Raising carp. Indonesian Agricultural Information Center.
Thus I can convey information about Complete Guide In Aquaculture Of Carp Fish For Maximum Results, hopefully what has been delivered can be useful, and do not forget to share with others, especially for those who are interested to develop the cultivation of carp fish. And good luck.