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Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding

Seed is a plant material that is essential to the process of planting. Good quality seeds will determine the success of the planting. Quality seeds and the genetic quality of their consisting of quality based on morphology. Quality good seed in the field is supported by the quality of the resulting seedlings from the nursery, and the successful establishment of seedlings in the nursery greatly influenced from the nursery management. Good quality seeds will determine the growth of the plant. Aside from the quality itself of selecting seeds that will be planted also affect the uniformity of growth in the planting area. Another factor that affects the growth of the seed itself among other ways of planting itself.
Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding
The nursery is a place that used to sow the seeds of a plant species for the treatment and care over a certain period, that will produce seed that is of good quality, which meets the requirements of the age, size and growth are quite good and ready to be planted in the field, one example in papaya cultivation, cultivation of coffee plants, or plants in plants in pots, either planting chillies and grow tomatoes. The resulting seedlings can be the seeds in a container, round, scraped or stump. To provide a common understanding concerns in relation to the activities of the nursery / nursery, then the below given some meaning or definition involves some of the terms used in the nursery:
  • Procurement of seeds is an activity which includes the preparation of facilities, infrastructure, collecting quality seeds either seeds or seedlings seedlings of natural or other techniques intended as a provider of materials (seeds), especially in planting activities, enrichment (enrichment planting), rehabilitation of forests and other uses.
  • The nursery is an area whose location remains the maintenance of seedlings and built with equipment that is neat and orderly that related to reforestation areas of vacant land and damaged or other designation.
  • Seed is a seedling plants to be cultivated.
  • Plot sow is a seedbed containing soil media, in order to breed seeds.
  • Weaning beds are beds where its placed polybags containing seeds originating from sowing beds and puppies that come from nurseries in order to prepare for the size and quality of seeds sufficient for enrichment, rehabilitation or other designation.
  • Seedling media is media in the form of soil, peat, rice husk which is prepared in a way that allows for seed, the seeds can grow well.
  • Seed is a seed that would come from the seed stands or parent trees that have not been subjected to special treatment or unsorted.
  • Is a vegetative breeding nurseries that use cuttings produced plant material from the garden pruning.
Nursery function
Nursery or nursery serves to provide quality seeds in sufficient quantity, in accordance with the planned needs, administration time is right and the seeds can adapt to the site or to the local conditions.

Planning Nursery
Planning an early stage of any process of implementation of the activities. In the nursery activities, some of the considerations that are used in planning the nursery activities include the determination of the type of nursery, nursery location, material requirements, equipment requirements and labor and time required procedures.

Type Nursery
In general nurseries are grouped into two, namely the temporary nursery and nursery remained.
While nursery (Flying Nursery)
Nursery while usually a small nursery, and placed near the site to be planted. Seedbed of this type usually used does not exceed a period of 5 years.

The advantage of the nursery while among others:
  • Environmental conditions closer to the actual situation.
  • Transportation costs low seed.
  • Soil fertility does not matter because the seedbed always on the move after the land becomes poor.
  • Little labor is so easy to obtain.
While the lack of nursery while namely:
  • Costs fall nursery expensive because the spread of work with little results.
  • Enhanced skills of workers is difficult, due to frequently changing personnel.
  • Often fail due to lack of trained manpower.
  • Location seedbed that emanated complicate supervision.
Keep nursery
These nurseries are usually large (wide) and location settled in one place, with the aim to serve the growing areas are extensive.

Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding
The advantage of the nursery remains is:
  • Soil fertility can be maintained by fertilizing
  • Can be done mechanically if desired 3 Monitoring and maintenance more efficient, with a permanent staff and elected.
  • Planning work will be more regular.
  • Productivity seedlings / seeds high seed quality is better and more uniform growth.
As for the shortage of nursery equipment are:
  • Environmental conditions do not always approach the real situation.
  • Transport costs are more expensive than the type of temporary nursery.
  • Costs and greater investment than temporary nursery.
Location Nursery
Determining the location of the nursery must be preceded by field observations. To select the location of a good seedbed seedbed, some requirements that need to be considered are:

Technical Aspects Nurseries
Nursery layout
Nursery sites wherever possible cultivated in the middle of the planting area or are in close proximity premises growing areas. Location or area of ​​the seedbed should be on open land and gets enough sunlight / direct, easily accessible at all times and is protected from strong winds blowing.

Road transport
Location seedbed should be accessible by road transport or means of transport, so as to facilitate the transport and surveillance activities.

Nursery Size
The area of ​​the nursery depends on:
  • Plan the number of seedlings to be produced / year
  • Whether planting bare root system (bare root) or container system that requires space / place wider.
  • The length of seedling / seed kept in the nursery until the desired size is obtained.
Physical Aspects
Water
The existence of water sources in sufficient quantities, especially in determining success / absence of the nursery to be built. In general, water resources in forest areas such as rivers, streams, soil and rainwater.

Growing Media
Is one component soil where the plants grow. Plants will thrive when fertile growing medium and languish when the growing medium is not fertile.
The conditions require the seedlings growing medium as follows:
  • Porosity and good drainage
  • Free of rocks and gravel
  • pH 5-7
  • Not a clay
  • Contains a lot of nutrients (in terms of the media used infertile, can be given as a fertilizer replacement).
Topography / Slope
Location seedlings cultivated in areas that are relatively flat. The more severe topography, it will be increasingly difficult to progress the preparation of the field and also getting a lot of effort and costs required. Slope can be considered as a nursery area of ​​not more than 10%.

Aspects of Labor
Labor availability in sufficient quantity and quality yag adequate become the decisive factor for the success of the nursery. Labor requirements on cultivated seedbed can be met from surrounding communities or who are close to the nursery.
Labor requirements for each nursery depends on the volume of work there. The volume of work in the nursery activities are generally different at each stage of the exercise, because it is labor requirements are also different.

Materials / Material
Materials needed for nursery activities consist of seeds, sand, soil or growing media forms another (peat, husks, etc.), plastic bags (containers) fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides.

Seed
Two important factors that need attention in the provision of quality and quantity of seed is a seed. Provision of good quality seed and in sufficient quantities and on time largely determines the success of the nursery. Often there is a shortage of seed is not due to a lack of quantity / weight of seeds available, but because of poor seed quality. This can happen for a region that does not have the seed stocks of certain species that must be brought in from outside. To ensure the quality of the seeds in accordance with those contained in the label, it is necessary to test.

Media Growing From Sand and soil media (other types of growing medium)
Basically soil or other growing medium to medium sapling been good, free rocks, gravel and other objects, so it does not interfere with the growth of the seeds were germinated and seedling growth sapling results. Hard objects in question include gravel, or stone.

Sand for germination medium cultivated sterile as possible among others by drying in a full sun for 2-3 days or flushing hot water or fried in order to avoid the possibility of fungus. In an effort to spur the growth of seedling sapling result, lately a lot done with a fertilizer that is mixed with soil which has been selected for weaning medium. This work was done by mixing fertilizer and soil until uniform (stirred) after it is loaded into a plastic bag that had been prepared. Comparison of manure with the soil that is 1: 2, while when using TSP fertilizer normally used dosage 4-5 grams per plastic bag. For certain types of plants such as meranti and pine plant weaning media such as land and fertilizers are also mixed with mycorrhizal bacteria.

Equipment and Labor
Place Nursery, consisting of:
  • Workspace
  • Data space
  • Rest room
  • Medical room
  • Warehouse.
Guard house
Guard house provided for residential and warehouse workers (foreman nursery). It is very important that the nursery is always awake and able to take action if there are problems in the nursery, among other issues seedbed disturbance by pests and diseases that are abrupt.

Watering Means
Irrigation facilities in the nursery, among others in the form of trench / channel and the water tank is sufficient. In order not to depend on rain water, nurseries should be equipped with equipment such as pipelines for water.
For watering seedlings with less than 50,000 seedlings are usually performed by hand, using the tool flush. Moderate to nursery with the production of seeds / seedlings of 50,000 seedlings will be more advantageous to use a pump motor with automatic watering. In the modern nursery watering is done by "sprinkle irrigation" in this way the water is sprayed through a sprayer that can be played like a fountain.

Road Transport and Roads Inspection
Road transport need to be made to transport materials and equipment needed in the nursery including for transporting seedlings at the time will be planted in the field. The width of road transport is usually not less than 2.5 meters wide inspection road was between 0.75 to 1.00 meters.

Nursery fencing
Nursery that require fencing normally under these conditions:
  • Often there are strong winds
  • The disruption of livestock
  • Disturbance boar / deer.
Shade
Shade is made with the intention to avoid seedling damage from light and excessive temperatures and damage caused by rain water tempaaan. The aim is to get a good seedling growth by providing the appropriate light and temperature needs.

To provide shade on the seedlings thing that should be known in advance is the nature of the type of core seedling continuing need light. For seed germination and seedling growth whether it requires full light or need shade. In practice, the shade is needed both for species that need shade or unnecessary shade. Only for types that do not need shade or require full light, given shade of light, for example shade made from gauze plastic or reed / palm leaves as roof set not too tight so that sunlight can still get into the seedbed / tub, shade often open, unless there is heavy rain and the sun was so hot. The intensity of the shade is reduced gradually. Generally 8-10 weeks before the seedlings transferred to the field, shade completely eliminated. This meant that before the planting of seedlings in the field can adapt from the situation on the ground which is normally open.

Other means : (hoes, sickles, sprayer etc.).

Governance Implementation Nursery
Governance activities in the nursery needs to be planned carefully.
Planting in the ground is usually done at the beginning of the rainy season, so before then order seeds (seedlings) should be ready. Given the rainy season for each region different possibilities, it is the beginning of establishing nurseries also follow local circumstances.
The length of time holding each period nurseries, besides influenced by climate (growing season) local, is also affected by the type of crops to be planted, because each type of plant until ready for planting takes different.

Nursery Techniques
Engineering seedlings that can be done include:
Seed
  • Seeds should be collected from the parent tree straight trunk, branching height, titled dense, healthy and are old enough. If the seeds purchased from seed producers who have a certificate that clearly.
  • Seeds have been collected / purchased immediately transported to the nursery and selected to choose a good seed.
  • Good quality seeds have a high germination rate of 80% with high purity embodied in the form of seeds is not hollow, sinking when it entered the water, large and uniform seeds.
To obtain seeds that lead through breeding programs, can generally be classified into two, namely:
  • Short-term seed requirements : The seeds obtained through the selection and appointment of plus trees, stand-stands good, and the source provenance seed stands.
  • Long-term seed requirements : Attempts to obtain seeds of a truly superior, through a series of tree breeding activities to preparing seed-gardens.
Lap
  • Seedlings with the rotation system implemented if there is a need certain seeds for planting seedlings special or achievement of targets.
  • Target seedlings are preparing plants for planting, enrichment and rehabilitation.
  • Kind of seeds are planted from trees harvested species or species that have commercial advantages.
  • Seed material taken can be derived from the seeds, scraped, or cuttings.
  • Seeds that have been taken were taken to the nursery to be adjusted for the environment.
  • After the treated seeds in the nursery and are ready to plant, the seeds are taken can be brought to localized planting.
Scraped
  • Collecting conducted on natural seedlings around the mother plant with a maximum radius of 10 meters from the parent tree canopy projection.
  • Natural seedlings usually has a height of 15-30 cm in the number of leaves 2-5 pieces.
  • Should be done during the rainy season or the soil is still wet / damp.
  • Tillers revoked carefully done with the revocation of parallel straight trunk and arranged so that the roots are not severed.
  • Natural seedlings that have been collected should be immediately transported to the location of plots weaning.
  • Puppies that have been collected, organized, arranged in the direction in which the roots of the roots and leaves with a leaf.
Cuttings
Making the garden plot barbershop :
  • Size beds (1.5-2 meters) x 6 meters north-south direction and the distance between beds 0.6 meters and around the beds to be given holder made of boards with a height from ground level ± 15 cm.
  • Each plot to be given as a protective roof seedlings from sun and rain water directly. Made of a durable material such as sarlon, filled with a mixture of medium height ± 20 cm.
  • Media used to trim garden is a mixture of top soil, rice husk, peat in the ratio 6: 3: 1.
  • Comparison between the land for the purposes of inspection with extensive road embankment is 1: 3
  • The plant material should trim garden seeds - seeds vegetative or seed from seed originating from parent trees that are good phenotypes.
Manufacture of cuttings
  • Material cuttings taken from chicks that come from the garden pruning should be juvenille or younger and shoots autotrop not branch. For the first phase of each seed can produce ± 14 cuttings.
  • To improve the quality of seeds cuttings generated from the garden trim longer recommended for use as materials for pruning orchard. Selected seedlings that grow uniformly excellent functionality as well as the number of leaves.
  • Size tub with solid media cuttings and media (water rooting system) is 1 x 2 meters with a height of 0.6 m. In order to stabilize the temperature of media cuttings tub construction to be made with concrete walls as wide as ± 10 cm
  • Shade should be provided so that the intensity of light that enters the cuttings are not too high (optimum 50%). This shade can be used for transparent plastic white.
  • Spacing cuttings tub 5 x 5 cm.
Vegetative plant material (shoot tips) for the manufacture of shoot cuttings can be obtained from several sources:
  • Crop garden
  • Nursery (trimming rolling)
  • Natural seedlings
Plant tissue isolation method
  • Choosing and preparing the parent plant as a source of explants.
  • Setting up the culture media
  • Sterilization of explants.
  • Initiation of the culture or the culture establishment.
  • Multiplication or propagation propagation (propagated plant material such as buds or embryos).
  • Elongation bud induction and development of roots.
  • Acclimatization to the external environment (green house).
Criteria Ready Planting Seeds
Quality seed based Mansur (2010) consists of the genetic quality and quality based on morphology. Morphological quality can be judged based on:
  • High seeds, seedlings can be planted in the field if it has reached a height of 30-50 cm
  • Diameter seeds, for seeds with a high measure of 30-50 cm seedlings have reached a minimum diameter of 0.5 cm.
  • Robustness (ratio between the height and diameter of seedlings).
  • Straightness seedlings, in a plot of weaning often found the seeds that are not straight due to the skewed arrangement polybag
  • Bud dormancy, seed with dormant buds that have the ability to live in the field of higher when compared with the seed bud part sekulen
  • Has woody stems, seeds with woody stems that have the ability to live the high ground.
  • Presence or absence of roots that penetrate the polybags, if many growing outside polybags will cause death when the seedlings will be revoked.
  • The presence or absence of bacteria mycorrhiza, to ektomokoriza it is characterized by the presence of mycelia are white or yellow on the surface of media weaning if polybag opened
  • The presence or absence of pests.
Source :
  • Adinugraha, HA, Sugeng P, Toni H. 2007. Vegetative Propagation Techniques Acacia mangium plant type. Research Center for Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Hutan.Vol. 5 No. 2, September 2007.
  • Budi, SW. 2010. Practical Guidelines Silviculture. Silviculture Department of Forestry Bogor: IPB
  • Mansur I. 2010. Silviculture Techniques Used To Reklamsi Land Mines. Bogor: SEAMEO BIOTROP. [Not published].
  • Nurwardani, P. 2008. Engineering Plant breeding and Seed Production. Directorate of National Education. Jakarta.
  • Sukandi T, Sumarhani, Murniati. 2002. Technical Information Pattern Wanantani. Research and Development Center for Forest and Nature Conservation Forestry Research Agency. Bogor.
So little that I can convey information about the Learn The Proper Techniques Of Plant Breeding, may be useful for the readers, and who forgot to share with others.

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Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results

Production of crops, especially corn, showed improvement increasing from year to year. Population growth and community nutrition improvement program through diversification of diet, encouraging demand for corn is increasing and becoming one of the Commodity Trading that are still open chances. In addition to commodity corn as raw material increases with the number of livestock food industry, oil industry and product corn ethanol, which has the advantage of hybrid maize varieties of maize composite that is 25-30% higher production, lodging resistance, disease and drought as well as short-lived.
Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results
Besides the corn crop a lot of good, because almost all parts of the plant can be used for various purposes, among others, stems and young leaves for animal feed, stems and old leaves after harvest for green manure and compost, stems and leaves dry for firewood, rods maize for the linear (pillar), corn stalks for pulp (paper material), processed corn to vegetables, stir-fry, corn kernels older can be processed as a substitute for rice, corn bread, flour, rice noodles, a mixture of ground coffee, biscuits, fodder, raw materials beer industry, pharmaceutical industry, dextrin, adhesives, textiles, etc.

Conditions of Growth in Maize
Ideal rainfall of about 85-200 mm / month and must flatten. In the phase of flowering and seed filling needs to get enough water. Should be planted early rainy season or towards the end of the dry season. Requires sunlight, the plants are shaded, its growth will be hampered and the results are not optimal seed. The optimum temperature is between 23-30 degrees Celsius. Corn does not require any special soil requirements, but the loose soil, humus rich soil will produce optimal. soil pH between 5.6 to 7.5. Aeration and good water availability, the slope of the land is less than 8%. Areas with slopes of more than 8%, should be the formation of ancient terraces. Altitude between 1000 - 1800 m asl with optimum height of between 50-600 m asl

Classification and morphology of Corn
Corn Plant classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Sub-class: Commilinidae
Order: Poales
Family: Paceae
Genus: Zea
Species: Zea mays L

Corn Plant morphology
Leaf.
Corn leaves classified into the leaves are perfect, the leaves on corn light green when they begin to show their leaves and dark green when mature and yellow when aging, bone leaves with midrib are aligned and leaves on corn there is a smooth hairless and some coarse fur circuitry.

Rod.
Corn plant stems upright and sturdy, stalks of corn plants consist of segments and each wrapped in a leaf midrib that always appear in any of her books, but not a lot of corn stalks contain lignin, but its trunk remains upright and sturdy.

Root.
The roots of the corn plants have root fibers to reach a depth of about 8 m, however the average root of the corn crop is only in the range of 2 m, in addition to fiber,  adventitious roots will also appear when the maize plants aged adult who works to help strengthen the enforcement of corn stalks.

Flower.
Male and female flowers on separate plants corn, therefore pollination in corn plants need the help of wind, insects and even humans. Each male and female flowers on maize should be powdered with the help of nature (naturally) or with human assistance, the male flowers are at the ends of cobs of corn plants.

Fruit.
Fruit corn yellow colored light moment before adulthood or milky white in a state of formation, each stem of corn plants have at least 1-2 corncobs, although now the renewal of improving the quality of corn hybrids but generally each rod is only one ear only, and when the fruit of corn grown will be transformed into yellow.
Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results
Technical Guidelines for Corn Crops
Land preparation
Ideal Soil conditions Required:
  • Soil loose, fertile, not easily flooded by water / drainage is good.
  • Have enough organic material.
  • Neutral to slightly acidic pH (5.5 to 7).
  • The slope of the land is not more than 8%.
  • Height of 0-700 meters above sea level.
  • Argillaceous clay type, clay or sandy loam soil.
  • Areas that have a supply of water (source water) is quite
  • Full sunlight (not shaded trees or tall buildings).
Perform processing of land well, so that the soil becomes loose and the plant can grow well.

Benefits of Land Management:
  • Soil structure repair.
  • Soil Aeration fix.
  • Killing Plant Pest Organisms (OPT)
  • Inhibits the growth of weeds.
  • Launched Drainage (revenue and disposal of water)
Better made tracks towards the east-west width of ± 150 cm or customized with a disc-plow that is used, so that smooth drainage.

Land Management Type:
  • Sports Land Conventional / Perfect
  • Processing system which is generally done farmers by plowed and raked manually or mechanically so that the soil becomes more friable, fertile and easily cultivated.
If Land Systems TOT (Sports Without Land)
A system of minimum tillage to reduce costs, making it more efficient and land conservation objectives achieved.

Preparation Seed
Seed Quality:
In determining the quality of seeds can be seen from several aspects, namely:
Physical
  • Uniform seed size.
  • Free mold / pest warehouse.
  • Good germination.
Morphological
  • Typical properties.
  • Uniform crop.
  • Hold environmental stress.
Growth
  • Initial growth / vigor sturdy.
  • Resistant to pests and diseases.
  • Response to fertilization.
  • Lodging resistance because it has strong roots.
Results
  • Husk closed.
  • Size large cobs.
  • High production.
  • High yield.
  • Meeting and seed weight.
  • Seeds neat.
With the selection of quality hybrid corn seeds, can increase production and increase farmers' profits.
Planting
Manual
  • Perform planting when the soil is moist conditions, after rain or after irrigated.
  • Planting manually done by the planting hole.
  • Drill deep holes in the ground with a ± 3 cm, 1-2 seeds enter the seed into the hole and then covered with soil or organic fertilizer.
  • Use the rope to make the planting lines neatly and according to the desired spacing.
Mechanical
  • Planting can be done mechanically using a tractor drawn PLANTER.
  • By using Planter not only be done but also the planting of fertilization.

Fertilization
  • Fertilization is manually done using drill. Make a hole next to the plant at a distance of ± 5-10 cm, then fertilizer is inserted into the hole and covered with soil.
  • After fertilization did watering.
  • Perform balanced fertilization, ie fertilization to complete all the necessary plant macro elements, namely the elements N, P element, the element of K. In order for all of these elements fulfilled encouraged to use the NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer application.
Fertilizer application manually is as follows (per hectare):
Fertilization is first performed in conjunction with the sowing 5 cm planting of the planting hole. Fertilizer needs, for this is the basic fertilizers: Urea 200 kg / hectare, SP36 150 kg / hectare and Kcl 100 kg / hectare or the use of NPK Grand S-15200-250 kg / hectare.


Old plants 21-25 days after planting and 35-40 days after planting the second and third fertilization is done by providing urea 200 kg / ha or 2.5 - 3 grams per plant. The second and third fertilization is done by sowing 10 cm from the plant and close to the ground as well as hoarding.
Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results
Deficiency Fertilizer
  • Shortage of phosphorus (P element) is characterized by reddish-purple leaves, especially on young plants.
  • Lack of nitrogen (element N) is characterized by a yellowish color in the leaves and growing tip of the bone along the main leaf.
  • Magnesium deficiency (micro elements mg) was marked by the emergence of whitish stripes along the veins and often arise purple on the underside of old leaves.
  • Potassium deficiency (K elements) is characterized by the formation of imperfect cob cob do not have seeds which the tip is full, and seeds rarely.
  • Corncobs due to lack of Nitrogen (N elements) at a critical time, marked with a small cob, low protein content and the end of the cob is not seeded.
  • Due to lack of phosphorus (P element) are marked with a small cob, dried bent with seed formation is not perfect.
Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results

Irrigation
  • Watering is an important factor in maize cultivation. Water shortages affect plant productivity. Excess water (stagnant land in the long term) also led to corn plants die.
  • If the land is used has a network of irrigation and water supply are enough then do watering once every 10 days by flowing on the array and immediately discarded, and certainly there is no stagnant.
  • If the land use is a land without irrigation or land area that does not have a supply of water (rivers, lakes, swamps, etc.) then it can be done with irrigation wells or irrigation systems watered manually (basically corn does not require much water).
  • Create an artesian wells in the nearby land and water stream by using a pump.
10 days before harvest irrigation should be stopped in order cobs drying process can be accelerated.

Planting Corn
Manual
  • Perform planting when the soil is moist conditions, after rain or after irrigated.
  • Planting is done manually by means of the planting hole.
  • Drill deep holes in the ground with a ± 3 cm, 1-2 seeds enter the seed into the hole and then covered with soil or organic fertilizer.
  • Use the rope to make the planting lines neatly and according to the desired spacing.
Mechanical
  • Planting can be done mechanically using a tractor drawn PLANTER.
  • By using Planter not only be done but also the planting of fertilization.
Corn Plant Pests and Diseases

Pest
Flies seeds (Atherigona exigua Stein).
Symptoms: The leaves change color to yellow, the affected part decay, eventually the plants wither, the growth of the plants become stunted or die.

Cause: fly seeds with traits flies colors of gray, yellow-green color striped backs, abdomen yellowish brown color, egg white color pearl and flies 3-3.5 mm long.

Control:
  • Concurrent planting and application of crop rotation.
  • The affected plants immediately removed and destroyed.
  • Garden sanitation.
Caterpillars cutter.
Symptoms: plants clipped a few centimeters above the ground, characterized by the bite marks on its trunk, consequently young plants collapse.

Cause: some kind of caterpillar cutter: Agrotis ipsilon; Spodoptera litura, corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis), corn and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera).
Control:
  • Concurrent cropping or crop rotation.
  • Find and kill the caterpillars (usually found in the soil).
Disease
Downy mildew (Downy mildew).
Cause: The fungus Peronosclerospora maydis and P. javanica and P. philippinensis, rampant at temperatures of 270 C and above as well as the state of humid air.

Symptoms:
  • Age 2-3 week pointed leaves, small, rigid, inhibited stem growth, yellow color, the undersides of leaves there is a layer of white fungus spores.
  • Age 3-5 weeks of impaired growth, the leaves change color from the base of the leaves, cobs change form and content.
  • On mature plants, there is a brownish stripes on old leaves.
Control:
  • Planting ahead or early rainy season.
  • Cropping patterns and crop rotation patterns, planting resistant varieties.
  • Unplug and destroy infected plants.
Leaf spot disease (Leaf Bligh).
Cause: The fungus Helminthosporium turcicum.

Symptoms on the leaves appear elongated and irregular patches of yellow and surrounded by a brown color, spotting develops and extends from the leaf tip to the base of the leaf, spotting originally looked wet, and then it turns brown yellowish, later changed to dark brown. Eventually the entire surface of the leaves turn brown.

Control:
Crop rotation.
Regulate land conditions are not humid.

Rust disease (Rust).
Cause: The fungus Puccinia sorghi Schw and P.polypora Underw.

Symptoms in adult plants, the old leaves are dotted brownish red stains such as rust and are brownish yellow powder, powder of this fungus to grow and elongate.

Control:
  • Regulate humidity.
  • Plant varieties resistant to the disease.
  • Garden sanitation.
Hirst disease swelling (Corn smut / boil smut).
Cause: corn smut fungus (DC) Cda, Ustilago zeae (Schw) Ung, Uredo zeae Schw, Uredo maydis DC.

Symptoms: This fungus influx into the seed on the cob, causing swelling and remove the gland (gall), this leads to swelling of the wrapping is damaged and dispersed spores.
Control:
  • Regulate humidity.
  • Cut off the plant and burned.
  • Seeds to be planted mixed with PGPR bacterial, please find an article about PGPR and How can breed in search menu, because I've been reviewing them.
Cob rot and rotten seeds.
Cause: The fungus Fusarium or Gibberella include Gibberella zeae (Schw), Gibberella fujikuroi (Schw), Gibberella moniliforme.

Symptoms can be seen after unwrapping the cob, corn seeds pink or brownish red then turns into brown color brown.

Control:
corn planting resistant varieties, cropping rotation, set the distance of planting, seed treatment.
2 weeks before planting can be sprayed bacteria trichoderma, I've been discussing the benefits and how to breed trichoderma, so more details please find the article.

Harvest
Corn can be harvested in a state of physiological maturity at the age of 105-115 days after planting in the lowlands (according to varieties).
So that the moisture content of corn grain harvest is low then let the corn in the trunk until totally dry ± 115-120 DAT (days after planting).

The characteristics of corn ready for harvest:
  • Corn has a brown leather
  • Black hair and dry
  • Population skin dry corn 90%
  • Seed corn when pressed with a fingernail no imprint
  • There is a black spot on the institution corn kernels
Manual harvesting
  • It is advisable to not do pruning the leaves (leaves above the cob cut) at the age of 90-100 days after planting the corn plant, because it causes a drop in corn production.
  • Picking corn is ready to harvest from the stem and insert it into the sack. Corn and send it to the house or to the warehouse to dry or immediately separated from the cob.
Mechanical harvest
  • In the vast land and a shortage of labor, a better harvest is done mechanically using HARVESTER.
  • By using this tool, the corn is picked will be immediately separated from the cob. It is necessary to note the moisture content of corn when harvested.
  • Corn can then be sent directly to feed mills, or sent to the warehouse for the water level is lowered within the required standards.
  • Corn can then be sent directly to feed mills, or sent to the warehouse for the water level is lowered within the required standards.
Post Harvest
  • Corn that has been harvested, sorted. Corn ugly separated from the good maize corn to maintain quality and avoid transmission of the fungus.
  • Once at home, the corn must be dried in the sun, in order to lower the water content becomes 25-28%.
  • Once the corn is dry enough or have KA 25-28%, it can be directly separated corn seed corn. Intake of corn kernels can be done either manually or mechanically.
  • To get a good price then corn kernels that have been separated from the cob should be dried again to obtain a lower water content.
  • Corn is already quite dry (KA = 20-25%) put into sacks and stored in a warehouse and then taken to the Market, Trader Gatherer or to the Feed Mill.
Tips:
Organic fertilizer when the soil if at least 5 tons / ha can increase the productivity of maize crop. Organic fertilizer will be maximized when combined with the provision of biological fertilizers and pesticides biological PGPR both insecticides and fungicides in tackling pests and diseases.

So little information I can say about Corn Cultivation Complete Guide For Maximum Results, hopefully what I say could be useful to readers, especially for those who want to start for the cultivation of corn, do not forget to share an article that could be useful for people Another, and if there are any questions we can discuss together about cultivation of maize. and please read the guide also cultivating others, including banana cultivation, cultivation of pomegranate, pineapple cultivation, and cultivation of coffee.

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Tips on How to Grow Plants Mustard In The Pot Or polybag Correctly

Different ways people grow vegetables to land conditions that do not allow it as an alternative to the use of polybags or use a flower pot, all can be done with simple and easy. to the level of fertility and the plants themselves usually tend to be fertile when applied to palybag or pot. Why so? because using such means of supervision and the level of nutrients in the soil is more assured than in planting in paddy fields, orchards or fields. This nutrient-rich plants can be planted by using polybags or pots but my time share tips on how to plant mustard using polybags, why? because the pots or polybags fees or charges are lighter, and use the pot can take advantage of large cans or buckets that have been damaged but can be used as a medium for planting. Before we discuss the Complete Guide How To Grow Mustard In The Pot, it is good we know little about mustard itself, hopefully when we already know the plants we can have an idea in care.
Tips on How to Grow Plants Mustard In The Pot Or polybag Correctly
Plants Mustard
Mustard plant has the Latin name "Brassica juncea L." It is a kind of plant seasonal vegetables. This plant is one with the cabbage family such as cauliflower, broccoli and radishes or called cruciferous (Brassicaceae). Therefore, the mustard plant has a morphology that is almost the same, especially in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of mustard is a type of leaf vegetables are popular with consumers because it contains pro-vitamin A and ascorbic acid is high. There are two types of mustard namely chicory and mustard greens. Both can be grown in the lowlands to highlands.

Growing requirements for this type of commodity is not too difficult. mustard can grow and adapt well in almost all soil types both on land mineral textured light to heavy clay and organic soil like peat. optimum soil pH for cultivation mustard range between 6-6.5 and the optimum temperature for growth mustard 15-20 ⁰C.

Mustard Plant classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Sub Kingdom: Tracheobinonta
Super Division: Spermatophyta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliophyta
Sub-class: Dileniidae
Order: capparales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: Brassica juncea L.

Mustard Plant Morphology
In general, mustard plant has three types that can be cultivated, namely chicory, mustard greens, and mustard greens BUMA. Chicory (B.juncea L. Var Rugosa Roxb & Prain) has a nipple short stem, erect, and also has wide dark green leaves. Mustard greens have short stems, leaves whitish and also has a bitter taste. While mustard BUMA have short stems, small and miniature or dwarf plants.
Here morphology of mustard:

Root
Mustard plant has a taproot and root branching elliptical form that spreads onto the surface of the soil, the roots can penetrate the soil to a depth of 30-50 cm. This serves to absorb the element of water and nutrients from the soil.

Rod
Mustard plant has a short stem and segmented, so it is not visible. The stem of this plant is used to sustain or support the establishment of mustard leaves. Mustard also has leaves that are very smooth and hairless and has a stalk-shaped flat.

Leaf
Mustard plant has oval-shaped leaves and round, wide and dark green easy. And do not have fur. The leaves of this plant have a long petiole and short, narrow or wide white to green, is strong and smooth.

Flower
Mustard plants have flowers that are elongated and branched. These plants have flowers consisting of four sepals, four petals bright yellow, Four more strands of stamens and one pistil two hollow. Pollination of these plants in the aid with the wind and small animals around.

Fruit and seeds
Mustard plants have fruit round or oval, whitish to greenish, and each one fruit has seeds 2-8 seeds grains. Mustard seed small round brown to black, has a smooth, shiny, hard and slimy.
Tips on How to Grow Plants Mustard In The Pot Or polybag Correctly
To plant in the mustard here there are three steps you should do, namely nursery, planting and harvesting stages it is the same with chilli plant in a pot or other vegetable crops. the following steps:

Seedbed
  • The first prepare a place for seeding, need not utilize buckets or anything that can be used as a nursery.
  • Fill in a place seeding with land that has been mixed organic fertilizer first.
  • Sow mustard seeds on seedling media
  • To further the process of watering, do the watering morning and evening, when the rainy season seeding places unnecessary flush as long as the media is still moist.
  • After the age of about 2 to 3 weeks mustard seeds ready to be planted in pots or polybags.
The process of planting
  • The first prepare another pot or polybag with a diameter of 15 cm, or can be conditioned to those around you, which can be important to be planted 3-5 seeds of mustard.
  • Fill pots or polybags with soil that has been mixed with organic fertilizers you try to size a little more soil than organic fertilizers.
  • After you prepare the soil in pots or polythene bags are now preparing to plant in pots or polybags mustard, mustard seeds unplug process that has you sow, and planted in pots or polybags that you have prepared. You should be careful enough not to break up the root mustard.
  • Holes in each pot or polybags for planting the seeds of mustard, here you can plant a mustard 3 to 5 seeds in each pot or polybags.
  • Once this process is complete flush at least once a day and when old enough 2 times a day, and provide organic fertilizer at least if indeed mustard plant growth less than the maximum or less fertile growing medium.
Harvest
Mustard plants began to be harvested after 45-50 days old plants. Harvesting is done by pulling or cutting the base of the stem. When the late harvest can cause rapid flowering plants. Mustard freshly harvested plants are placed in the shade, so as not to quickly wither. To maintain the freshness of the vegetables need to be given water by sprinkling.
Tips on How to Grow Plants Mustard In The Pot Or polybag Correctly
So little information that I can convey about Tips on How to Grow Plants Mustard In The Pot Or polybags Correctly, may be useful for the readers, and never be afraid to try, then if never try you certainly do not know how to plant mustard in pot correctly, and please read the guide also grow plants in pots or other polybag, including kale planted in pots, planting ginger in a pot, planted strawberries in pots, plant spinach in a pot and planting leeks in the pot..

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Guide How to Grow Organic Kale In The Pot Or Polybag With Easy

How to Grow Organic Kale In The Pot - Limitations of land is not an obstacle for us to create satisfying hobby, one hobby gardening moreover we plant is a plant with an organic system. Not just a hobby vain but a hobby that provides a solution for the present. At least a solution for themselves, their families and the surrounding environment. The decreasing availability of land is a fact and food needs is an obligation. Meet food needs for self, self, family, environmental, state and nation. Everything starts from ourselves.

Depletion of agricultural land pushed smart people be creative to create a modern agricultural system. Although not fully achieved yet innovation is being created. Starting try farming on its own grounds utilizing the pots in the house to raise the polybag one plant kale in pots or polybags. We also degraded soil nutrients so it is not as fertile as of yore, then comes innovation in hydroponic and aeroponic farming. The continued development of the plants we narrow spur to try farming in vertikultur. That innovation, will continue to grow endlessly.
How to Grow Organic Kale In The Pot Or Polybag With Easy
How to grow watercress is actually much easier than growing other vegetables. Especially if you're a fan of sauteed kale, can feel very disconnected if you know how to grow organic kale in pots.

Before I review about how to grow organic kale in pots, you must first know the type - the type of kale plants that can be cultivated and used.

There are 2 kinds of kale plants are commonly cultivated:
Kale Army
  • Growing up in a dry place
  • Smaller stems with greenish white color
  • The leaves are thinner and softer
  • Flower color is generally white.
Kale Water
  • Grows in wet such as trenches, pools of rice fields, as well as pool
  • A larger trunk and a solid green
  • The leaves are wider and harder
  • Reddish white flower color
In addition to good taste when processed into vegetable, kale also has many benefits for health.
Kale benefits include :
  • Overcoming Insomnia, selenium and zinc content in spinach may lead to drowsiness and sleep in people who consume them.
  • Constipation, kale believed to have many fiber content that is useful to facilitate digestion.
  • Prevent anemia, iron found in spinach can increase hemoglobin in the human body so as to prevent the occurrence of anemia.
  • Keep the immune system and eye health, Vitamin C and Vitamin A is very useful for immunity and eye health.
That some of the benefits provided from the plant kale for health, but it also kale is also believed to maintain a healthy liver (liver) and keep the intestines of parasites. With the benefits provided are not wrong if we cultivate in our homes kale for daily needs. To cultivate kale at home can be done in the country yard or in pots and polybags, but this time I will discuss about how to grow kale organic in pots or it could be a polybag, where can customize the material most easily available around you, the following explanation:

Preparation of seeds
The first step to plant kale, of course you have to get a winning kale seeds beforehand. Choose seeds that are free of pests and diseases, as well as derived from varieties that already proved its quality.

For breeding kale itself can be done in two ways, the first way is to use seed or better known as generative. Whereas the second way, or vegetative, ie nursery cuttings done with the system.
How to Grow Organic Kale In The Pot Or Polybag With Easy
If you choose to sow the seeds first, you have to make the area seedlings by loosening soil with a certain area according to the needs of planting and number of seeds, prepare media for seedlings, it adjusts the availability of materials that are around you, can be a tray or large bucket that is damaged can be utilized for seedling media. After that sprinkle a mixture of soil, manure 1: 1, if there husk can add 1 part again, allow 1-5 days seedlings area. Having considered the sow seeds that have been purchased kale evenly and cover with soil evenly and thin (usually when I was about 5 days, and even then if the organic fertilizer is correct so). Cover the seedlings with a net or leaves with a distance of 20 cm - 30 cm from the surface of the seedlings. Perform regular watering morning and evening, usually kale seed will grow after 5 -7 days from sowing. Seedlings can only be transferred if it has leaves 3-4 strands or height of 10-15 cm.

If you do not want complicated, you can plant the seeds directly in pots or polybags kale that has been prepared.

Seedlings are very important as a first step to plant kale good, it is recommended to use seeds from varieties that clear. You do not need the confusion to find the seeds, just come to the farm stall, there you can select what kind of seed to be used.

Prepare a Pot or polybag
Pots used were flowerpot which has particularly small holes in the bottom, but to save the cost of pots or polybags can be replaced by using cans or buckets former. Select the appropriate desire for container is needed, if you use store-bought pots or polybags you do not need to make holes for water infiltration. If using a used tin cans or buckets you need to make small holes in the bottom of the bucket or tin, it is useful to be to avoid stagnant water infiltration, you can make the hole by using a nail or a heated iron.

After the planting has been prepared, the next step is to fill the venue. Fill the container with the use of loose soil mixed with organic fertilizer (compost 1: 2 Land), such as when seeding, if there is a husk can be added, so that the ratio of 1: 1: 1. Let the pot or poly bag for 1-5 days before planting, so that the condition of soil nutrients due to stirring stable.

Planting Seeds Kale
After the spinach seeds are sown has grown and ready to be moved, do the lifting of sowing spinach slowly so that the roots are not damaged. After the seedlings can be directly planted in pots or polybags filled soil and manure. Make a hole in the pot or polybag by pressing your index finger, make a hole 3 pieces at a depth of 10-15 cm. Then enter the 2 seeds kale on every hole and press the ground beside the hole so that the hole is closed. Do not press too hard, because the seeds of spinach to fractures. Do the same thing in pots or polybags further until all the pots or polybags supplied planted.

If you choose to plant the seeds directly in pots or polybags kale, can do the same thing by making a hole using a finger as much as 3 holes. Then enter kale 2 seeds in each hole. then cover the hole with soil. Let while remaining flush 2 days until the kale seedlings grow. Having grown watering should be done every morning and evening.

Kale care
Watering should be done every morning and evening. If the monsoon watering can be stopped. Other treatments that need to be done is to clean the grass that grows in pots or polybags. Fertilizer application is also highly recommended, but we recommend organic fertilizer because spinach is to be consumed in order to not endanger your health.

Kale harvest
Land kale harvest is 25-30 days from planting. Kale land should be harvested by pulling spinach with roots. But if you want to be harvested two times, harvesting can be done by cutting kale kale knife.

Fresh kale itself by planting crops organically is ready to be used as a vegetable for the family, in addition to adding to the delicious taste of your food, kale will also result in many benefits for the health of your family.

Similarly tip on Guide How to Grow Organic kale in pots or polybags With Easy, the information given may be useful to readers, and please try it yourself at home.

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Complete Guide How to Grow Organic Spinach In Pot

Spinach is a vegetable that is much in demand, as well as protein content, spinach is also a vegetable that many properties, especially vegetarians. Vegetables that this is indeed very easy to plant and yet, certainly not haphazard spinach which would have high economic value.
Complete Guide How to Grow Organic Spinach In Pot

Spinach is done by planting an organic pattern will yield high economic value, can be sold in supermarkets and of course also this time the community is much aware of the importance of organic crops.

Basically planting organic spinach in a pot is not much different from conventional planting spinach, only the difference in treatment organically, then the medium in the form of a pot.

Spinach planted in pots probably never crossed your mind. But until now have not you try, now for the following article might encourage your interest back to plant spinach in a pot that you can place in a narrow area that you have.

Spinach is indeed one of the most vegetables in the favorites, because it not only as a vegetable but various creations can be done by the mother - a mother to be served at the dinner table for consumption by the family.

Before we discuss about planting spinach in a pot would be helpful to know a little spinach itself, here's some information you need to know.

Classification and morphology Spinach Plants
Spinach or with the Latin (Amaranthus spp.) Is a plant that can be consumed leaves as a vegetable, vegetables are precisely originated in America in the tropics, but because these vegetables can be easily grown and grow in any climate finally spinach could spread throughout the world, in addition to contains a lot of protein, according to experts spinach also contain much iron is essential for human growth.

Spinach "Amaranthus sp" is one of the vegetable crops which can be cultivated in the lowlands and highlands. Spinach has two types that can be cultivated, namely white amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) and spinach (Amaranthus hibrydus L).

However, both of these spinach differ very much from the shape of leaves, branches and stems of flowers. In broad outline is still air spinach families with spinach (Amaranthuscea). Moreover, according to some scientists that spinach has classification, morphology and anatomy as follows.

Classification Spinach Plants
Kingdom: Plantae
Sub kingdom: Tracheobionta
Sub Division: Spermatophyta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliophyta
Sub Classis: Caryophyllidae
Family: Amaranthacea
Genus: Amaranthus
Species: Amaranthus L. (Amaranthus sp.)

Spinach Plant Morphology
In general, plant spinach can be done anatomy and morphology based on the shape of the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds.

Root
Spinach plants have root shrubs (terms), spinach plant roots will penetrate the soil to a depth of 20-40 cm and even more. Spinach plant roots is quite taproot and had odd jobs at the top.

Rod
Spinach plants have stems grow straight, thick and contains a lot of water. The stem of this plant has a length of up to 0.5-1 meters and has a branch monodial. Spinach stems brown, gray and also has a delicate spines at the base end of the stem of the plant spinach.

Leaf
The plant has a single leaf, light green and dark, round-shaped elongated and oval. Length of 1.5 to 6.0 cm spinach leaves on even more, with a width of 0.5 to 3.2 cm and has a base end of pointed leaves and obtusus. Stem spinach accompanied with a stalk that is round and has a surface opacus. The stem length reaches 9.0 cm and have edges or surfaces repandus.

Flower
Flowers spinach plants have single sex, dark green, and also has a crown composed of 4-5 flowers leaves fruit, stamens 1-5, 2-3 and ovaries as well as other pieces that help in pollination. Flowers spinach crop is smaller in size and reach 1.5-2.5 cm long, and grow in axillary arranged upright. However, this is usually in the pollination of flowers also help with the animals around and wind.

Seed
Spinach plants have small seeds, and smooth, has a round shape and has a brownish color to black. However, there are several types of spinach contained white and red beans, for example spinach maxi.

Organic Spinach Cultivation way in the Pot
Process Organic Spinach Planting In Pot
The process of planting the spinach organically as well as non - organic, only treatment of its course in the treatment of organic, planting is not necessary with the nursery in advance, but keep in mind is the intensity of sunlight needed by the plant, the ideal temperature required by this plant is 16 - 20 degrees Celsius with humidity being, meaning not too dry or too humid.
Complete Guide How to Grow Organic Spinach In Pot

Prepare a seed derived from the multiplication of seeds, while the spinach seeds taken from spinach old age with a history of very good growth (good plant vigor, resistance to pests and diseases), or can be obtained from vegetable seeds store. Okay straight to his growing process.

First prepare the land to be used for planting spinach, with the composition of the soil, sand (if there husk can be given) and fertilizer in this case the use of organic fertilizers, after the process of stirring the soil is ready to do once the seed is planted, leave beforehand for 3 - 5 days, and if there is, you can give a fungicide biological one giving trichoderma, more details about trichoderma please find the article because I've been over, then leave on the ground in humid conditions, aims to ground the better and a little anticipation of the planting medium into heat especially when organic fertilizers are immature or so.

Next, enter the soil in pots (fill to 2/3 of the amount of the pot), allow 2-3 days, if it was ready then sprinkle the seeds over the pot, cover the surface with sufficient land, and do not be too thick, then flush the pot with enough water , did watering every day, in this period the plants vulnerable to damage, so be careful in care, and watering.

Tip: you can soak the seeds with bio fertilizers PGPR about 2 hours before planting, because the PGPR contain growth hormones, so hope the seeds that you plant can grow faster, please find the article to know the benefits and how to make PGPR alone, because I already been discussed.

Spinach Care
Do watering when planting medium dry or in need of water, and do the fertilization in this case you use solid organic fertilizer or organic liquid fertilizer, which distinguishes between spinach plants organic and non - organic, other than perhaps a seed that is planted must come from organic crops.

Spinach Plant Pests and Diseases

Spinach Crop Pests
Insects moth (Spodoptera Plusia Hymenia)
Symptoms: The leaves cavities - holes.
Control: Natural Pesticides / enough to wiggle the plant.

Insects aphids (Myzus persicae Thrips sp)
Symptoms: The leaves damaged, perforated and withered.
Control: Natural Pesticides / enough to wiggle the plant.

Insect mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus)
Symptoms: The leaves damaged, perforated and withered.
Control: Natural Pesticides / enough to wiggle the plant.

Spinach Plant Disease
Damping-off
Cause: The fungus Phytium sp.
Symptoms: infect the leaf stems and leaf stems.
Control: Can use natural fungicide

Wet rot
Cause: The fungus Rhizoctonia sp.
Symptoms: the patches - white patches.
Control: the same as disease control plant pests.

White rust
Cause: The fungus Choanephora sp.
Symptoms: infect the leaf stems and leaves.
Control: the same as disease control plant pests.

Harvesting
If you plant spinach then harvest time required is about 3 weeks to 1 month after you do the planting, do harvesting by pulling the plants, but should be done carefully, the roots of the plants should be uprooted, then wash with water, and the plants are ready to you if and consumed. If you plant spinach learned a little longer then this is about one to one and a half months.

So is that I can convey information about Complete Guide How to Grow Organic Spinach In Pot, hopefully what I say could be useful to readers, especially for those who want to try organic spinach planted in pots. And do not forget to share with others that this article could be more useful.

Please try Planting and Good luck.

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Easy Guide On How To Grow Organic Leek In The Pot or polybags

Leek is a vegetable crops that can be grown in the highlands and the lowlands with altitude 250-1500 m above sea level. The air temperature is needed for the growth of these plants is 18 - 25 oC with soil pH 6,5 - 7,5. Almost all types of soil as andosol, alluvial. Latosol and regosol be planted scallion.
Easy Guide On How To Grow Organic Leek In The Pot or polybags
Planting leeks may be most easily compared to other vegetable crops, because we just plug seedlings directly in the soil. We do not need to weaning in the nursery / seedbed, and we do not even need to bother to build shade for nursery. So easily plant the leek, but surprisingly many are reluctant to do so.

To keep costs down it is good shopping you grow your own vegetables in your backyard. For the first step to planting leek in pots or polybags, planting scallion quite easy because living plant seeds without need to undertake the process of seeding or seeding. Leek harvest period is also quite short of the seeds can be harvested after 2.5 months of age or the number of his grove began many existing and partly yellowed leaves.

This time Independent Agriculture will discuss about how to plant leeks in a pot or polybag with organic systems. A process which we will discuss the process of the planter of seeds, how to plant and how to care for plants scallion. For seeding process will be discussed in two ways treatment process. Here's an easy way to plant leeks in the pot, but before we talk about how to grow leeks would be helpful to know in advance leek, following a brief explanation of the leek.

Scientific classification Leek:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Genus: Allium

How to Grow Organic Leek In Pot or polybags

Nursery with Seedbed Leek
  • Seed planted in beds with a width of 100-120 cm and a length of land. Processed soil as deep as 30 cm mixed manure that has been sifted as much as 2 kg / m.
  • Beds were given a clear plastic roof as high as 100-150 cm and 60-80 cm in the East on the West side.
  • Seed sown in transverse bolt as deep as 1 cm with 10 cm distance between the bolt.
  • Cover with banana leaves / wet jute sacks.
  • Once germinated the cover is opened.
  • Watering every day.
  • Plants fertilized with leaves as much as 1/3 - 1/2 the recommended dose spray (age 1 month).
  • 2-month-old seedlings with a height of 10-15 cm ready to be moved to cultivate.
Breeding of Seedlings Leek
  • Clumps that will be used as seed 2.5 month old and healthy.
  • Clumps dismantled along the roots, clean soil attached and root / leaf old.
  • Separate clumps so we get some new clumps consisting of 1-3 chicks.
  • Discard most of the leaves.
  • Seeds stored in moist and shady place for 5-7 days.
Media Preparation Plant Leeks
For the planting medium leek vegetables in the pot is no different with vegetables in general. Soil or planting medium should be the pivot, lush, fertile and high in organic matter with a pH ranging from 6.5-7.5. To create a planting medium leek ideal to use the mixing of soil, compost and rice husk with a composition of 2: 1: 1. If trouble making husk can also use a mixture of manure with the soil composition of 1: 2.

Planting and Care Leeks
To create a live plant growers hole in the ground in a polybag or pot with a depth of 10 cm. Put the seeds, to 1 pot 1 seed. Cover with soil and flush water. For the best planting time planted the afternoon so that the air temperature and respiration rate is not too high.

Early treatment is very easy to plant watering every day, but not too much in the flush. For fertilization can be given foliar fertilizer or liquid organic fertilizer. The process of fertilization by spraying the leaves evenly or drained into the ground. Application of fertilizer can be given from day 10 and repeated every 10 days up to 3-4 times.

Organic Leek harvest
Age Plants
Harvesting leeks based on the age of the plant depends on the seed planted. If the seed is derived from the plant seedling can already be harvested at the age of 2.5 months. Whereas if the seed is derived from the seeds planted came from seed leek can be harvested at the age of 5 months.
Easy Guide On How To Grow Organic Leek In The Pot or polybags
How to Harvest
Leek harvesting is done by pulling the entire family of plants or dismantled by tools small hoe. Leeks that have been revoked immediately transported and assembled in the shade to avoid the direct sunlight.

Planting constraints Leek
This type of leek plants susceptible to pests and diseases, especially in the rainy season. Here are some types of common pests and diseases that attack plants scallion, namely:

Pest
  • Armyworm (Spodoptera litura)
  • Onions caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubn)
  • Leafminer (Liriomyza chinencis
  • Thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind and Thrips pasvisipunus Karny
Disease
  • Late blight (Phythopthora infestans)
  • Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
  • Anthracnose (Collectrotichum gloeospoiroides)
  • Spotting Purple / Trotol (Alternaria porri)
  • Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum)
Pest and disease control is sprayed with the naturally available material -material drug stores. For spraying is done interval of 5 days - 3 days, see the weather conditions and pest / disease. should use in rotation with other crops that pests are not immune.

This information is all I can say about Easy Guide On How To Grow Organic Leek In Pot or Polybags, may be useful for the readers, so there's no excuse anymore because they do not have land, narrow area we can still functioned in transmitting the hobby of gardening , let alone can reduce spending for housewives ..

Good luck...

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Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For Maximum results

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is one kind of plant vegetables and derived from subtropical areas that have important economic significance, which includes species that produce vegetable leaves, buds, flowers, stems, sweet potatoes and oil seeds. It is also to animal feed, in addition to delicious and tasty to vegetables, it sprouts also have utility as medicinal plants, which is believed to cure diseases hyperaciditas. These vegetables contain nutritional value of high value and thus, is suitable consumed vegetables to improve public health. The content of nutrients contained in cabbage plants, among others carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and contains various kinds of vitamins including vitamin A, B1, B2, and vitamin C, so the vegetables are widely consumed by the public, (Chayono, 2001) ,
Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For Maximum results

According to the origin of cabbage plants were cultivated until today originated from the wild cabbage that grows along the coast of the Mediterranean, the United Kingdom, Denmark and north-west France, as well as the Glamorgan coast. Cabbage plants that exist today were selected from wild cabbage growing since 2000 years ago. And in the ninth century cabbage has spread throughout the world of agriculture, although cabbage has long been known by the people of Indonesia. Because these vegetables generally come from areas that had subtropical so for optimal growth and production required a very specific climate and way of planting a little difficult when in comparison with other vegetables, (Rukmana, 1994).

Spacing influence on the growth and yield of cabbage, especially during the formation of the crop, which is highly variable between oval, flattened, and conical. Thus a spacing shown to effectively utilize light and nutrients evenly spread (Rukmana, 1994).

Aspects of weed control on cabbage plants are considered inseparable package in the cultivation of cabbage plants overall. Weeds or plant pests are often a problem in cabbage as a competitor in the use of water, light and nutrients for staple crops. Weeds can also serve as a buffer or host for pests or diseases can even remove toxins that can adversely affect the growth and yield of cabbage (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993).

Low production due to plant cabbage plants business is less intensive and still traditional, ie, without the use of a spacing and frequency of weeding less precise. Therefore, to increase the production of cabbage necessary intensive cultivation of the plant spacing and weeding so that it can support the growth and yield of cabbage.

Botany Cabbage
Cabbage in the systematics of plants classified as follows:

Kindom: Planeta
Devisio: Spermatophyta
Subdivisio: Angyospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Papavorales
Family: Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)
Genus: Brassica
Species: Brassica oleraceae

Morphology Cabbage
Generally, the cabbage plants are annuals (anual) shaped shrubs. With the composition of major organs stem leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots, the plant's root system that can penetrate the relatively deep soil surface depth between 20-30 cm, (Rukmana, 1994).

In general, the cabbage plants have shorter stems and contains a lot of water (herbaceuos). The stems are green, thick and soft and strong enough. This plant has branched stems that are not so visible, covered with leaves on the stem surrounded se to the growing point, and there are short-stemmed leaf blade (Rukmana, 1994). Cabbage leaves are oval, oblong to wide and green. Leaves the outside covered with a layer of wax and lint. The bottom leaf growth not bend, can reach a length of about 30 cm, the young leaves next start bending the leaf cover is existing thereon. In the growth phase will be formed by the leaves of the crop (Pracaya, 20001). Sometimes because of the pressure of the pressure leaves easily formed inside the leaf without in Balance deployment resulted in the crop heads smashed. This situation can occur when the plant will bloom. Flower of this plant is a collection of the interest period amounted to 500 petals, flower cabbage is a perfect flower that has pistils and stamens (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993).

Terms Growing Cabbage
Cabbage commonly called cabbage requires appropriate environmental requirements in order to grow. But basically cabbage can grow and adapt to hot climates or in accordance with the varieties, particularly the suitability of the soil (land) site and a climate that supports similarities and salinity of soil also determine the growth and yield of cabbage, (Pracaya, 2001). In general, the cabbage can be grown on all soil types. However, growth would be ideal if planted in sandy clay soil that contains a lot of organic material.

In the life cycle of cabbage require sufficient water, but not excessive. Good soil for growing cabbage is loose soil, many containing humus with pH ranging between 6 - 7. The good soil fatherly type of cabbage that is sandy loam, (Rukmana, 1994).

Climatic conditions suitable for growing cabbage is an area that is relatively humid and cold. Moisture is needed cabbage is 15 ° C - 20 ° C as well as getting enough sunlight, (Rukmana, 1994). Japanese study concluded that the optimum temperature for growing cabbage is 15 ° C - 20 ° C. But in Indonesia differences in each climatic factors, temperature, day length, humidity and rainfall hujang radiation evident on the environment lowland and highland (Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, 1993). Differences in the characteristics of the climate elements cause some cabbage varieties grow well in the highlands and some other varieties grown in lowland ie 0 - 200m above sea level (asl).

Planting distance
Aspects of the use of spacing of the implications of the results of broad unity, but also to the average size of cabbage produced a decisive additional value commodities. Spacing plants cultivated regularly in order to obtain uniform growing space, and the maintenance is easier and easier to carry out weeding spacing of influence on plant growth and crop formation, spacing adapted to the varieties grown. spacing is too tight increases the humidity around the plant, this state can spur the growth and development of the pests, but it also influenced the acceptance of sunlight at each plant so that it can affect the growth and yield of cabbage. (Suprapto, 1990). Spacing greatly influenced the decision-nutrient that is the competition between the plants, but it also affects the use of elements of the climate and the efficiency of land use and influenced the formation of the crop in cabbage plants.

Irregular spacing can cause unproductive plants, also affect the reception of nutrients and light. While the regular spacing and good will make allowances for the plants to receive nutrients and sunlight evenly. (Cahyono, 2001).

Spacing can be used to plant cabbage, among others: the spacing of 60x40 cm, yielding 10 tonnes / ha, a spacing of 60 x 60 cm, yielding 30 tonnes / ha and 60 x 50 cm, yielding 20 tonnes / ha.

Frequency Weeding Weeds
Aspects of weeds in crops is inseparable package, so in the cultivation of the crop as a whole cabbage. Weeds or plant pests are often a problem in cabbage, because it is a competitor in the use of water, light and nutrients for staple crops. Weeds can also act as a buffer or host for pests and diseases can even remove toxins that can adversely affect the growth of staple crops. (Everaarts, 1981). Effective weed control efforts on cabbage has long been known that the system of weeding by hand. Weeding is done to clean seedbed or nursery, grass or other wild plants that can interfere with the growth and yield of cabbage, so the plants can grow without competition from the invasive plant. During the time of planting is done twice weeding along with the activities of tilling the soil.
Rivalry between weeds and crops are inter-specific competition due to occur between different species of plants, while the rivalry that occurs between the same plant species are inter-specific competition. (Sukman, 2002). Competition is defined as the struggle of two or more organisms to compete for the same object. Both weeds and crops have the same basic needs for normal growth and development. Rivalry occurs when the growth support element is not available in sufficient quantities for both.

The ability of plants to compete with weeds is determined by weed species, weed density, the time and duration of the competition, how the cultivation of varieties grown, and soil fertility. Species differences will determine the ability to compete on because of the difference of photosynthesis, rooting conditions and circumstances morphology. Weeds that emerge or germinated first or simultaneously with plants managed, resulting in greatly to the growth and yield of cabbage. (Rukmana, 1994).

Cabbage Cultivation guide

Management of land and water

  • Remove weeds and plant debris to choke the soil-borne disease like root swelling, soft rot, seedling felling, and others. by way of revoked and collected and then burned or can make compost.
  • Do not plant cabbage plants with constantly and do crop rotation.
  • Wear an organic fertilizer and rice husk, especially in the dry season to increase the efficiency of water use, if any cocopeat with an abundant amount can later be used, for more details you can read the benefits of cocopeat.
Land preparation
  • Place dug and plowed as deep as 20-30 cm
  • Give dolomite or agricultural lime approximately 2 tonnes / ha when low pH or acid.
Nursery phase.
  • Media seedbed consists of a mixture of soil and manure (compost) finely with a ratio of 1: 1.
  • Seeds are soaked in warm water for 0, 5 - hours then aerated.
  • Spread the seeds evenly and regularly then covered in banana leaves along 3-4 days
  • Work on watering every day with a flush.
  • Seedbed in open each morning until 00 and 10. The evening starts at 15. 00
  • Observe the cabbage seedlings are attacked by the disease fluffy flour (Peronospora parasitica) or moth on leaves first, plucked and discarded affected leaves.
Spacing
Spacing rare 70 X 50 cm or spacing of the meeting of 60 X 50 cm.

Seedling Cabbage
Seed that is in use must come from seeds that clear quality and the manufacturer so as to avoid problems at the end of the cultivation and the results are satisfactory.

Basic fertilization
  • Base fertilizer is given one day before planting time with a dose of 250 kg / ha TSP, 50 kg / ha of urea, 175 kg / Ha Za and 100 kg / ha KCL, Manure dried 6 Ton / Ha and agricultural lime 2 Ton / Ha.
  • Basic fertilizer combined with equally then given to the planting hole that has been given manure, then covered again with soil.
How to Grow Cabbage
  • Make the planting hole with the appropriate drill spacing of
  • Determine the fresh and healthy seeds
  • Planting seedlings in the planting hole
  • If the seeds sown on the tube immediately planted banana leaf seedling media simultaneously.
  • When sowing seeds in a plastic poly bag, then remove the seeds from the newly planted polibag
  • When sowing seeds in the seedbed take land along approximately 2-3 cm from the stem 5 cm (rotation system)
  • After planting, soak the seeds in water until wet
  • Cabbage can be intercropped with tomato through planting method: 2 rows of cabbage rows of tomatoes. tomatoes are planted 3 or 4 weeks before when the cabbage.
Pre-establishment phase of the crop (0-49 days)
  • Watering can be done in the morning or late afternoon supplementary fertilization can be done when the plants are 28 days old, the dose is 50 kg / ha of urea 100 kg / ha and pic 175 kg / ha za
  • Weeding (loose right and landfill) is performed at 2 and 4 weeks
  • Prune the shoots that flower formation can be optimized in this phase there is usually a pest that attacks them are caterpillars ground (Agrotis ipsilon hufn.), Moth (Plutella xylostella l.), Caterpillar crop cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis zell.), And striped caterpillar crop (hellula undalis f.).
  • Observe every week once the pests began 13 days old cabbage. The highest population took place at the beginning of the dry season, Draw your young plants that die from diseases plant pests (Rhizoctonia solani kuhn.) And embroideries with healthy new plants.
Crop establishment phase (50-90 days).
A week before the harvest, weeding done manually by hand. Observe with more intensive pests that caused major damage in this phase, namely; cabbage moth (p. xylostella) and cabbage caterpillar crop (c. binotalis). For pest attack while welcoming the harvest does not need to be controlled with chemicals.

Cabbage Crop Pests
Moth (CP.xylostella)
Caterpillars eat the leaves of the bottom leaves so stay epidemic upper part only. Small caterpillars approximately 5 mm green.

Control can be done by taking a caterpillar found in cabbage, then squeezed to death. Chemical control is possible when found 5 tail caterpillar / 10 plants sample.

Grayak caterpillar (S.litura)
Cabbage armyworm also attacked. Together with the moth control.

Crop cabbage caterpillars (C. binotalis).
Often attack the growing point of a small green caterpillars greater than moth, when disturbed rather lazy to move. Unlike the caterpillar leaves the eggs laid spreads, caterpillar crop of cabbage lay their eggs in one group. Denganulat same control leaves.

Silkworm Land (Agro Ipsilon)
Black caterpillar. Sign of damage is truncated cabbage plants are still small. Control can be done by exposing the soil carefully around the plant are cut off. If the attack a lot, it can be used as akatoshiro Biological Insecticide mixed with bran, to find out more about akatoshiro please read The benefits of natural insecticides Akatoshiro.

Cabbage Plant Disease
Swollen roots
Symptoms:
  • During the day, the plant looks wilted like shortage of water, but at night or early morning leaves look fresh again.
  • Plants stunted and unable to form a flower can even die.
  • Root swelling and dark patches.
Control
  • Treating the seed as described in the preparation of the seed,
  • Sow the seeds in a place that is free of disease outbreaks;
  • Doing liming to increase the pH;
  • Pull plants were diseased;
  • Crop rotation with species that are not as family.
Watery soft rot
Symptoms:
  • Stunted growth, rot and die;
  • When attacking the stem, the leaves will turn yellow, wither and fall off;
  • When attacks the leaves, then the leaves will rot and slimy;
  • Other symptoms are tassel white fungus and eventually black.
Control
  • Use healthy seed and crop rotation with crops that are not similar.
  • Eradication with Fungicides, I recommend the use of natural fungicide, one bio fungicides Trichoderma sp, for more details please read the benefits trichoderma sp.
Fall Sprouts (Damping off)
Symptoms:
  • Patches of wetness at the base of the stem;
  • Stem rot, causing the rod fell down and easily broken;
  • Attacking the plants in the nursery, but can also attack plants in the field.

Control: seed treatment before planting and crop rotation with species of plants other than cabbage. control can be performed using bio fungicides.

Harvest and post-harvest At the age of 81- 105 days
  • Cabbage can be harvested already. Cabbage ready for harvest can be determined through the following signs:
  • The outer edge of the crop leaves at the top.
  • Crop curved outward and slightly colored purple.
  • And the crop has been solid in the hand.
When to harvest, to include two strands of green leaves that make crop protection Keep cabbage no bruises or cuts Consider whether there is a soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) and black rot (Xanthomonas camprestris). If there is, immediately dispose of the leaves of cabbage infected stretcher. Cabbage harvested gathered in the shade and not exposed to direct sunlight so that the respiration rate decreases. The goal is to get the cabbage with the quality and quantity.

Make a collection with caution and should not be piled and tossed. Sort or separate the cabbage crop is good and of poor quality or damaged. Store cabbage at a temperature of 32-35 degrees F and humidity 92-95%. Cabbage can be stored 4-6 months (cabbage high water content) and 12 months (cabbage low water content) with a weight loss of 10%.

If you are interested in planting cabbage then puzzled to find a good seed, you try to visit the cabbage seeds organic and non GMO or in here Asian region (free shipping)

Thus I can say about Complete Guide On How To Grow Cabbage A Right For maximum results, may be useful for the readers, and do not forget to share with each other, and survivors tried to plant cabbage, good luck with this guide.

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